Translated by BabelFish
Toulouse, April 30 1950
Whereas the Hurricane of Marcel Dassault continues his flights in the flight test centre of Brétigny, a large corpulent plane flew for the first time to Toulouse. Engineer Pierre Satre did not draw a beautiful plane, but it has the merit to have wanted to innovate. It is Pierre Nadot who took the orders of this single-seater whose name is Grognard is reference SE-2410-01. It leaves the workshops of the SNCASE. This combat apparatus is twin-jet aircrafts, the two engines being placed, like all the armament in the fuselage. This explains the particular shape of the plane. The air intake is placed above the cockpit which is him integrated in the profit of the apparatus. The sweptback wings are very thin and the horizontal drift postpones is located all in bottom of the fuselage. It would have flown earlier without the problems of tires met during rolling tests. To the return of the flight, Pierre Nadot announced very serious vibrations which occur at the speed of Mach 0.53. A new delay for this plane.
Baltimore, February 21 1951
Teddy Peter was an engineer at Westland Aircraft. It did not give up aeronautics by leaving this manufacturer since it started to study for his account the project of a twin-jet aircraft bomber as a notebook of specifications of the ministry for the aeronautical production required it. Its project interested English Electric which engaged it as chief engineer. May 13, 1949, its prototype flew for the first time. With two engines Rolls-Royce Nene and wings which take as a starting point those of Gloster Meteor, the plane made strong impression. Two other prototypes were put in production. Equipped with Avon engines, always with Rolls-Royce, it has just crossed the North Atlantic of a draft.
Edwards AFB, July 27 1951
This time, the green light is given to vary the geometry of the wing in flight. The first tests, which began on June 20, were limited to flights of control, the wings being in the advanced position, i.e. that which corresponds at the low speeds. This prototype is not an American invention. It is true spoils of war since it is the reproduction of the principle imagined by engineers de Messerschmitt. In 1945, the Americans had discovered, in Oberamergau, Messerschmitt P-1101 with wings with variable geometry. They brought back the plane to the United States and entrusted to Robert Woods, chief engineer of Bell, the continuation of research. The wing with variable angle can solve the problems currently encountered by the technicians. To right angle, it is limited of speed because of the phenomenon of compression which is created with the front one. In the shape of arrow, it is not rather any more carrying at the low speeds. It is a mechanism in the fuselage which while advancing or moving back varied the angle of the wings. There are three possible positions. The plane is equipped with an engine Allison and it reaches 1050 km/h.
Prestwick, July 31 1952
the made uses by the American army of this helicopter are known of the public thanks to films of current events. One does not count any more the missions of rescue and evacuation. He has just established a world record of distance in the helicopter. Two Sikorsky H-19, or S-55 in the nomenclature of the firm, crossed a part of the Atlantic from Iceland to Scotland. In three years, S-55 forged an excellent reputation. The problems of centering were eliminated thanks to a new provision of the elements. Its engine is placed at before and its tank under the floor. The cockpit is located above the cabin at sliding door. Its weight on takeoff is 3625 kg. 11 hours were enough for him to cross the 1480 km above the Atlantic.
France, September 14 1953
a name was born in fire from the action. Last 17 May, an air meeting brought together 50 000 spectators in Algiers White House. The third squadron of hunting of Rheims, directed by the commander Delachenal, shows all its talent. The commentator, fascinated by this spectacle, speaks then about the patrol of France. Soon, name becomes a patronym. The precursor of the stunt-flying is Adolphe Pégoud, since 1913. In 1931, the stunt-flying is prohibited for reasons of safety. Then is born the training school from Stamps which, dissolved in 1937, is transferred to Living room-of-Provence where it becomes the patrol of the flying school. In 1946, it is the patrol of Turns, dissolved in 1947. Lastly, three patrols of three planes are made up, they gather former fighter pilot of the last war.
International, November 2 1954
the v.t.o.l (plane on takeoff and landing with the vertical) seems an impossible goal. The concept of such a plane, usable to fine soldiers or civil, without need for track, is interesting. Its realization is less easy. In testify the difficulties encountered by the two hunters based on these principles and intended for US Navy. Better succeeded than its rival Lockheed XFV-1 Salmon, which hardly tore off ground on June 16, but equipped with the same engine Allison XT40 of 7100 CH, Convair XFY-1 Pogo is the first v.t.o.l to have taken off on August 1. It certainly has just made a success of its first translation of the hovering to the level flight, but the operation remains very delicate. Deviating from the American option which seems in the dead end, the engineers of Rolls-Royce developed a machine which rises by keeping its horizontal fuselage. It is Thrust Measuring Rig, or Lit-cage volant. It is propelled by two Nene engines and is equipped with tubes of stabilization. During its first coasting flight, August 9, it appeared very stable.
Toulouse-Blagnac, May 27 1955
the Caravel takes the air in the sky of Toulouse. It is one Friday, it is 19. 30 when Pierre Nadot pushes the engines of the Caravel with full power. It always has the feet on the brakes, immobilizing the apparatus which only requires to leap. A glance towards Andre Moynet, his copilot: all the parameters are good. It releases the pressure on the pedal and the track starts to ravel. The airspeed indicator climbs and Moynet shells speeds aloud. With 120 nodes (223 km/h) Pierre Nadot draws on the handle. The nose rises and the Caravel springs towards the sky of Toulouse, course in the south On board, it is a feeling of great pride. There is Jean April, flight engineer; André Préneron is the radio operator operator while Roger Beteille accompanies them as engineer responsible for the tests. Since the morning, one felt that something would occur today. The tests on the ground followed one another during two weeks, the personnel of the airport had been accustomed to see leaving this splendid plane the hangar of the flight test centre of the SNCASE. On the ground, the anguish made place with the relief. George Hereil admires the result of the work of all his team. This beautiful plane which evolves/moves is the fourth civil apparatus with reaction of the world. It is the first time that the engines are positioned with the back of the fuselage. The flight will last 41 minutes, the train and the shutters will remain left as envisaged. The catch of track was perfect, the plane returns towards the hangar. It is 8 p.m. 15 and the champagne will run with floods.
Melun-Villaroche, June 25 1955
the staff wanted a plane able to fly at Mach 2 and to climb to 18 000 m in four minutes to intercept the bombers. The SNCASO proposed the Trident equipped with two small engines and a powerful rocket. The SNCASE, it, makes the reverse with Durandal, which has a powerful engine assisted by a small rocket. The response of Dassault, in fact the MD-550 has just taken off of Melun, controlled by Roland Glavany. The plane is called Mirage, because Marcel Dassault thinks that the enemy will see it without never hearing it. He is equipped with a rocket of average power and two Viper engines. These engines are built under licence by Dassault. The Mirage will astonish the Americans as it was already the case with the Mystery. At Dassault, the priority it is the poids/puissance report/ratio. In the United States, even comfort is taken into account, and the cockpit of the hunters is air-conditioned.
Wiesbaden, July 4 1956
U-2 begins its career of spy above the USSR. Code name of the apparatuses: Aquatone. Mission: to fly over the USSR, in this period of cold war, in order to photograph all what will appear useful for the American soldiers and the CIA. Thus very first U-2 carried out their first mission of espionage, baptized Overflight. Started from Wiesbaden, where a secret base was installed, the pilots of the US Air Force achieved their role with brilliance. U-2 were built by Lockheed. The apparatus is appeared as a 15 m long fuselage with a span of the wings of 24,38 Mr. His wings thus enable him to plane a long time, engines stopped to cancel any thermal signature of its conduits. It can reach the altitude of 21 000 m. The cabin is located in advanced position. The canopy of cockpit is provided with a screen in the shape of cap to protect the pilots from the ultraviolet rays. In the compartment, the engineers placed the cameras and the recorders with high sensitivity.
Edwards AFB, September 27 1956
It was the third mission of the X-2 program. It will have been fatal to the Apt captain. The experimental prototype Bell X-2 was crushed close to the base of Edwards. The body of the pilot was found beside the cockpit: undoubtedly A-you it have time to actuate its ejector seat. There Apt accomplished its first flight on an apparatus of type X after a drive on the ground on computer. It will not have less beaten of it during this flight a world record speed: Mach 3,196 is 3369 km/h! It held already the record of altitude with 37 772 Mr. Conçu for the study of the effects associated at the highly supersonic speeds, X-2 seem to have escaped with the orders of the pilot.
Melun-Villaroche, November 17 1956
It is 16 hours and the weather is cold when Lucien Martin made leave the prototype Mirage III of its hangar. The plane is superb with its size of wasp and its delta wing. Dassault built without any governmental subsidy. It is its plane, and it knows that it will become a hunter adopted by several Air Forces. All the team, animated of the same desire of success, worked without slackening. At Dassault, there is little leave. The plane is built around the engine Atar 101G which has a push of 4500 kg. This famous engine is also a history. Just after the war, the French could convince Hermann Oestrich to work for them. This expert came straight of the department from research of BMW. To withdraw it to the Germans, they installed it, with its team, initially in Rickenbach then with Decize, around Nevers. The SNECMA absorbed this team. Glavany launches engine, the Mirage sinks and with 295 km/h it makes it take off. It returns the train and lets the plane slip by up to 700 km/h. The test of the air-brakes is perfect. Opinion that the trap door of train is not completely closed, Glavany returns to be posed.
Soviet Union, July 14 1959
Advantage in the Soviet Union: the world record of altitude has just changed camp. The exploit returns from there in major Iliouchine, wire of the famous engineer. Its apparatus, Sukhoi T-431, burst the ceiling of the preceding record with 28 850 m. It acts of a prototype of Known-9 the Sukhoi hunter, which entered recently in service the regular minutes Strany, the force of air defense. The record belonged up to that point to Lockheed Starfighter of major Johnson, who itself had on charmed it with the French May 7, 1958 by reaching 27 811 m.
Soviet Union, May 1 1960
For two years, the Americans have flown over Soviet Union in all impunity. Never Soviet managed to intercept them. As, it is with confidence as the pilot Francis Gary Powers, civil servant of the CIA, take off of Peshawar, in Pakistan, with the orders of his Lockheed U-2B to carry out the registered mission 4154. Its plane does not carry obviously any number nor distinctive sign. It must fly over the Soviet Union from beginning to end at very high altitude by taking photographs of certain objectives. Above the Ural, a first incident occurs: the autopilot the coward. He will have to remain with the orders until the end of his mission. But, while an aerodrome in the south-east of Sverdlosk flies over them, an explosion shakes the plane. A missile SA-2, drawn from the ground, has just reached it. The orders do not answer any more. Pieces of wing are detached and the apparatus goes into a tailspin. Powers starts the device of self-destruction of the plane before being ejected. Then it is the jump in free fall until its parachute opens automatically. On the ground, it does not have any more but to await the arrival of Soviet who will capture it.
Soviet Union, April 12 1961
Gagarine first pilot in space. The amazing news from Moscow made the turn of the world in a few seconds: Soviet became the first man with being placed in orbit. In the United States, it is consternation, whereas in the very whole USSR the field of triumph in the honor of the new hero bursts, Youri Alexéievitch Gagarine. Installed on board his enormous space capsule Vostock, which weighs 4725 kg, the cosmonaut was propelled in the sky at an altitude of 280 km by a rocket on three floors. Evolving/moving at a speed of 28 000 km/h, Gagarine made an orbit in 108 minutes before returning healthy and except, in its cabin suspended with a parachute.
Nevada, April 26 1962
"secret Signal": the instruction of the Pentagon is formal. The absolute secrecy with cover first flight of the astonishing strategic reconnaissance aircraft American, Lockheed A-12. So much so that it is of night that the apparatus was transported by the road to an almost unused airfield in Indian Springs, in Nevada. There, Louis Schalk took the orders of this apparatus trisonic, built almost entirely out of titanium alloy Beta B-120. Lockheed calculated that at Mach 3 the coefficient of heating would be at least 565 °C on the level of the conduits. A-12 or Blackbird is intended to be an invulnerable substitute of the U-2 spy plane.
California, July 17 1962
the limit between the plane and the rocket becomes increasingly thin. North American X-15 has just made the demonstration of it by reaching the record attitude of 96 000 Mr. Because it does not act any more maintaining of a simple stratospheric flight: the field of the space flights was practically reached. An exploit which is worth with its pilot, the commander Robert White, to receive the "wings" of the astronauts, to have ventured in a field which was not it his. Thus, this research program which had so much difficulty to start, since much did not see, 10 years ago, utility of hypersonic flights and at high altitudes, it is becoming one of most spectacular and most promising ever undertaken by the NACA and NASA. Since August 1960, the records of altitude and speeds practically fell to each mission. Knowledge which will result from it is priceless.
Atlantic Ocean, February 15 1964
the enigma of the Bermuda Triangle. Without the journalist Vincent Gaddis, nobody would never have intended to speak about the Bermuda Triangle. It is the first to use this term to locate this mysterious sector, between the coast of Florida, the Bahamas and Haiti. A perhaps supernatural place, in any case dangerous, where strange disappearances were announced since 1945 until today. There are however explanations more concrete than all those imagined by much. For example, this sector is famous for its frequent changes of times, which can surprise best pilots. Moreover, the sea is traversed by enough fast currents to make disappear very quickly from the wrecks. It is also known that the gravitational and magnetic activity of the place is unusual. Without speaking about the tropical storms about a great violence and electric interferences which disturb the instruments and, consequently, the pilot.
Edwards AFB, May 1 1965
F-104 de Lockheed gave a secret version, A-12. This one was also modified according to special appropriations to give three prototypes YF-12A. First received number 60-6934, it stole on August 7, 1963 for the first time. The day badly started: this morning, the engine did not function. The last two specimens took off leaving behind them only two immense tongues of fire. They left to take down all the records. Record of absolute altitude with 24 465 m, record absolute velocity in closed loop of 25 km with 3331,51 km/h.
London, September 11 1965
Fifty-fifty: king Solomon will have made followers among the European airframe manufacturers! The principle of a perfectly equitable distribution of the tasks is in the heart even of the Franco-British agreement on the Concorde project signed in November 1962. Four large aeronautical companies, two Frenchwomen and two British, were in charge of the execution of the project. Under the terms of agreements concluded since 1961 between these companies and confirmed by the two governments, the development of the supersonic future in fact was divided into two: the cell and the propulsion group. Approximately, that means that the parts before (whose cockpit) and back of the fuselage, nacelles and air intake of the engines and the drifts and control surfaces were entrusted to British Aircraft Corporation. South-aviation will carry out the central part of the fuselage, the wings and the gear landing. As for the engines Olympus 593, the SNECMA and in charge of the very complex system of exhaust nozzle whereas the compressors and the turbines were entrusted to Bristol Siddeley. The direction itself of the Concorde program is ensured by a committee responsible whose direction is entrusted alternatively, for one period two years, in France and Great Britain. The principle of equal division was even applied to the manufacture and study plans, sides in metric measurements and Anglo-Saxon measurements. What does not seem to obstruct the engineers.
California, June 8 1966
the XB-70A Valkyrie, the most beautiful American bomber, whose program had asked for 10 years of study, had flown away for an advertising film with two planes mentor, T-38 and F-104. With four other combat jets, it was to carry out a formation out of arrow for the needs for General Electric. Suddenly, for a reason remained unknown, F-104 effleure the XB-70, then strikes it. Under the shock, F-104 explodes, killing the pilot Joe Walker. The XB-70 starts in its turn brutal piqué. The two pilots, Al White and Carl Cross-country race, try to eject themselves, but the centrifugal force of the apparatus prevents any movement. To force of efforts, White manages to eject himself at the last minute. One will find in the wreck of the giant bomber the body of Cross-country race always attached to his seat. It is a stupid accident for a simple publicity.
Istres, November 30 1967
Dassault already had the honor to be the first manufacturer to design a plane on vertical takeoff which makes a success of the performance to take off on the spot for then flying at more Mach 2. He becomes also the first European manufacturer developed a variable-geometry aircraft which, in less than two weeks, made a success of its tests of variation of geometry of the wing in flight to reach the speed of Mach 2.1. It was only the 11th flight of the Mirage G. The first had taken place on November 18 with Jean Coureau with the orders. Remaining with the spread wings with 25°, it had simply made climb the machine with 10 000 feet to return to be posed in Istres. With its 18 T, the Mirage G has a speed of approach in threshold of track of 350 km/h. Since, the flights followed one another without problem with variation of the arrow. A skittle under the tail was added to make the plane stable at the transonic speeds.
Soviet Union, December 31 1968
Soviet have what to be proud. Tupolev You-144, baptized Concordskii in the west, became the first supersonic transport aircraft took off, for a 38 minutes flight at subsonic speed. The USSR thus beat speed the Harmony European. The leaders of the Kremlin knew that the initial flight of the Harmony was planned for the end next February and they absolutely made a point of being the first. In spite of the reserves issued by the person in charge for the project, Alekseï Tupolev, the two test pilots, Édouard Elyan and Mikhaïl Kozlov, took the orders of You-144 this morning. The weather was bad and of the planes had to sow the money iodide clouds to precipitate them. At first sight, You-144, equipped with four turbojets Kouznetsov NK-144, and the Harmony resemble itself much. They have the same ogival wings, the same frayed fuselage and the same lowerable nasal point. The KGB indeed was interested closely, since 1961, with the Concorde project. In spite of this resemblance, You-144, to which the announced performances are close to those of the Harmony, and of higher size although its payload is slightly lower (120 passengers, is 10 less than the Harmony). Contrary to the Harmony, its coating comprises approximately 20 % of titanium.
the United States, December 31 1968
It is necessary to have steel nerves and great experience to carry out a flight trisonic, that is to say at speeds higher than 3600 km/h is with more than 26 000 m of altitude. A wrong movement, one moment of carelessness and it is the catastrophe. Since January 1966, the US Air Force lost at least five planes Lockheed A-12, YF-12 or SR-71 Blackbird during tests at very high speed and high altitude. Among the problems arising at the time of such flights, there is the heating: at Mach 3, the temperature passes very close to the 400 °C on the level of the covering of the fuselage, which can dilate even titanium. The flight at such speeds in the high layers of the atmosphere subjects also the plane to phenomena such as the starting of shock waves, the increase in the coefficient of drag and the reduction of the coefficient of bearing pressure. At Mach 3, there is no question of controlling manually.
Seattle, February 9 1969
the commercial aviation has just entered a new era, that of the transport of mass. Finished the exiguous planes able to carry 100 or 200 passengers to the maximum. The Western world seems to have the fidgets: everyone wants to travel by plane. Only one way of satisfying this request: to build the most gigantic civil apparatus ever developped at the point. 10 years after the launching from famous the 707, Boeing inaugurated the 747, a so enormous apparatus which can almost be described as flying steamer. First 747, or Jumbo Jet, controlled by Waddel Jack, took off this morning for the first time of the ground of Paine, close to Seattle, after having rolled only on 1370 Mr. On his board, the engineers placed more than 25 T of recording and measuring instruments. On the ground, the spectators do not believe their eyes of them; at the Jumbo, all is to be declined with superlative: its weight (more than 315 T), its capacity (approximately 400 passengers or 50 T of freight), its cost (nearly 20 million dollars in its initial version) and its fuel capacity (178 T, are about as far as the mass of a Boeing 707 with full load). In cruising, it consumes 12 T of fuel per hour. Intended to enter in service with Side Am at the end of the year, the Jumbo promises to revolutionize air transport. It also will oblige the persons in charge for the airports to reorganize their infrastructures to avoid a clogging at the time of the simultaneous arrival several 747, each one transporting its 400 passengers.
San Diego, 1 Mars 1969
official Name: US Navy Postgraduate Race in Fighter Weapons, Tactics and Doctrines. Another denomination: Signal Gun, in other words the nec more ultra in the aerial combat. Localization: base of Miramar, in the North-West of San Diego. Characteristics: air and sea school exempting to the fighter pilots a drive under conditions as close as possible to reality. Specialities: creation of a fleet of apparatuses able to simulate the adversary, particularly Mig Soviet, potential enemies n°1. Objective: to regild the blazon of American hunting tarnished in Vietnam and to become the most powerful school in the world. Frank W Ault is in charge of this task.
Toulouse, 2 Mars 1969
the eyes of the whole world are turned on the airport of Toulouse-Blagnac. After a delay of several days of the bad weather, Harmony 001 is on the point of flying for the first time. Hundreds of journalists and thousands of curious applauded the crew: Andre Turcat, commander, Jacques Unlucky, copilot, Michel Restive, mechanic, and Henri Perrier, engineer. Turcat starts the engines, but the countdown is stopped following a minor incident. Whereas the defective part was changed, two twin-jet aircrafts take off: one will film the flight of supersonic, the other will control the speeds indicated on board Harmony. At 3 p.m. 40 minutes 11 seconds, Turcat releases the brakes and Concorde, all lit reheatings, takes off. The plane, follow-up on line by television, carries out a broad circuit at low altitude and low speed. The landing gear remains left. The crew announces some breakdowns of instruments without gravity. Turcat poses the apparatus in front of the enthusiastic spectators, at 4 p.m. 08 minutes. With its descent of plane, it declares with a broad smile: "the large bird flight..."
Filton, April 9 1969
Five weeks after its elder French, Harmony 002, registered G-BSST, finally took its take-off. The British prototype is with the hands of Brian Trubshaw, chief test pilot of British Aircraft Corp. It is assisted by John Cochrane, the copilot, and by Brian Watts, the flight engineer. Like last month in Toulouse, thousands of people came to attend the historical flight. At the proper time, Trubshaw pushes à.fond the levers and all the power of the four engines is released. The heavy apparatus springs on the track and its nose starts to buck. When the angle of attack reached 10°, with a relative speed of 205 nodes, the wheels leave the ground. A long ovation greets takeoff. The plane moves then towards the military aerodrome of Fairford, to 80 km of Filton, where new tests will proceed. Suddenly, the crew announces that the two radioaltimeters of the 002 are broken down. It is worrying, because when the principal train touches the track, the cockpit will be always to 11 m above ground-level. In spite of this incident, Trubshaw succeeds in posing the Harmony.