Translated by BabelFish
Su-27 was built during the years 1970 in order to replace Su-15 and MiG25. It constitutes the component hunter of the air defense of the Soviet Union, the IA-PVO. Many planes of this type entered in service the aviation of first line, as hunters of escort to long range. The ' basic Flanker' did not have of appreciable air-to-ground capacity, but had a very large operating range, was very effective with the combat and enjoyed a remarkable maneuverability (especially low-weight). Operational with the middle of the years 1980, Su-27 was initially compared with the Western apparatuses such as the F-15 of McDonnell Douglas although it was nimbler with a larger operating range, but it was much less general-purpose and had an overall capacity appreciably lower than that of the F-15. The aerodynamic configuration of Su-27 was very similar with that of Mig-29 which one considered sometimes that it was a larger version and of a longer range. It divided several of the characteristics, points strong or weak of the "Fulcrum". These two Russian apparatuses divided same equipment IRST (Infra Red Search and Tracking, research and infra-red continuation) and RHAWS (Radar Homing and Warning, detection by radar and alarm), and had versions different from the radar N-019 ' Slot Back'.
The configuration twin-engine was an important pledge of safety and survival for Su-27, also enabling him to have a very good thrust/weight ratio. This allowed in more Su-27 to have exceptionally high performances. Its high-lift wings and with weak trail gave him good performances in turn, while its astute aerodynamics conferred to him an unequalled advantage with great incidence, as well as good performances at low speed. Contrary to Mig-29, Su-27 was provided with electric orders of flight, (although it comprises a conventional mechanical rudder, as well as analogical control lines in pitching and rolling instead of being numerical like those of the last Western hunters). This system had "elastic" thrusts which could be exceeded, thus giving to the pilot the possibility of exceeding the normal limits when that was necessary, with the risk, however, to lose the control of the plane.
The Americans assembled a certain time a designator of targets on semi-experimental helmet on some of the last Phantoms F-4 of US Navy and the Marine Body, but in fact nations such as Israel, South Africa and the USSR mounted the first operational sights of helmet. The sight of helmet used by the pilots of Mig-29 and of Su-27 is extremely simple and, especially, light; it includes/understands only one eyepiece through which the pilot sees his target and of the sensors determine with precision the direction towards which is directed the head of the pilot in order to direct well system IRST (Research and infra-red continuation) or the homing heads of the missiles. The originators of the sight resisted temptation to add heavy and complex assistances of night vision, postings or encoders position, and chose a simple and effective method which consists in pointing the IRST or the homing head of the missile in the same direction as that of the head of the pilot.
the effectiveness of the sight of helmet is increased by excellent short-range missiles, four missiles infra-red Vympel R-73 (AA-11 ' Archer'). The homing head of basic the R-73 missile has an angle of search for 30° or 45°, and can be brought under control to the radar, the IRST or the sight of helmet of the pilot. This allows the pilot of Su-27 to attack a very excentric target, far from the axis of the nose of its plane. The angle of attack out of the line of sight is not as large as did not imply it certain sources (105° each side of the central line, affirms a Western source); however, R-73 and the sight of helmet, together, can reach a cone of research ranging between 45 and 60° starting from the nose, laterally and in height. Moreover, R-73 is a nimble missile, provided with a rocket engine with vectorial push, control surfaces of trailing edge on the empennage postpones, and of orders duck to the front one. These elements make it possible the missile to transfer extremely dry as soon as it leaves its slope when it pursues a target with an extreme dépointage. (However, this operation consumes much energy, limits the aerodynamic effectiveness of the orders and decreases considerably the maximum range of the missile). In spite of its big size, Su-27 has a weak signature radar frontal, and can accelerate very quickly. This, added to the range of its missiles A-A R-27RE (AA-10 ' Alamo' with lengthened range), make Su-27 frightening adversary at long distance (BVR), and a mortal enemy in close combat.
Although it is more expensive than the Mig-29 basic one, Su-27 remains a relatively cheap hunter compared with the international standards and, just like the Mig one, is well equipped with a system with data transmission, a RHAWS (detection by radar and alarm) and a system of complete defense CME. It can also operate on takeoff synopses and landing strips. Although its marketing never was same success as that of small Mig-29, Su-27 was sold in China and Viêtnam, and was transferred to the Air Forces from Bielorussia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan after the dismantling of the USSR. Its marketing continues in an aggressive way, and it is omnipresent in the world. Su-27 is easy to maintain and repair and very resistant to the impacts during the combat. The apparatus uses, as far as possible, of the pneumatic systems instead of more flammable hydraulic systems, and its fuel tanks are protected by car-sealing walls and from the réticulées foam linings. At the time of simulations of USAF which took place in the middle of the years 1990, one discovered that for of the great variation of its engines, it was necessary to fire two missiles AMRAAM to be sure to cut down a ' Flanker' or a ' Fulcrum'. Although the use of "intelligent" algorithms making it possible to rather direct the missile on the zone of the cockpit than on the engines or the fuselage centre section, increased the probability of fatal blow of the missile, Su-27 remains extremely resistant to the damage.
Contrairement to Mig-29, Su-27 has a very great effectiveness with the combat. It does not have less than ten points of carryings of missiles AA which can transport six missiles BVR (out of the visual field) and four missiles with infra-red guidance. The last Su-27 had two additional pylons under the wings, which made twelve on the whole, thus compensating for the potential loss of the points of tips of wings when optional nacelles ECM Sorbitsiya are installed. Su-27 is as well provided for the dropping with lures in self-defence as in points D fixing for the weapons. The electromagnetic and infra-red chaff launchers (to 96 cartridges) are integrated in the dart of tail and careenages framing the dart of tail. When it has the full complete one with fuel, Su-27 a very large operating range has, and can remain in CAPE (Combat Air Patrol or air patrol of combat) for long periods. This allowed Su-27 to play the part of a plane of air defense to long operating range or of a hunter of escort, although its maneuverability decreases much when it is with full load.
Just like it divided several of the strong points of Mig-29, Su-27 also had weaknesses in common with his small cousin, as of the disadvantages which were clean for him. The shape of the large wings of Su-27 makes it very visible under certain angles, like the F-15. Just like those of Mig-29, the systems and the avionics of Su-27 are not integrated perfectly, which involves an important workload in the cockpit and which obliges the pilot with proud with external assistances (GCI or AWACS) to be determined the set of priorities of the targets and threats. Like the Migone, Su-27 is not easy to control and the management of its systems is complicated, which is likely to monopolize the attention of the pilot by reducing his capacity to evaluate the situation.
Just like turbojets RD-33 of Mig-29, the AL-31 of Su-27 must be often revised and can emit trails of smoke when they use certain fuels. Like the Migone, Su-27 as arms principal BVR the missile R-27 (AA-10 ' Alamo') uses, which is not very effective, but the defects of this missile are partly compensated by the great taken along number. Like the Migone, Su-27 transports little ammunition for its internal gun and its precision in attack is average.
The Soviets tried to solve the problems of the ' basic Flanker' while building Su-27M (which became, later, Su-35). The capacity multirôle of this new apparatus was improved, just as its air-to-air agility and its performances, thanks to new weapons and with a more effective multimode radar. When the European nations started the construction of their hunters of point (Eurofighter, Rafale and Gripen), they were useful of Su-35 like standard model of threat, developing new technologies by considering that the radar and the missiles of the Soviet apparatus would be of quality equal to that of the best equipment of which they would lay out within these deadlines. Although its construction was delayed by financial problems, Su-35 proved, in the final analysis, better and even more frightening than had it fears the manufacturers of planes and the persons in charge for defense European. Its capacities of attack on the ground were improved considerably and it probably had of better missiles AA and a better radar. Moreover, it was much more operating that it was not thought.
Su-27M was returned of three to five times more unstable than the Su-27 basic one, and of new entirely mobile ducks were added to the apexes. This required a new control device of electric flight numerical quadruplex system, which made it possible to carry the limiting incidence to 30 degrees. The maneuverability was also improved by the adoption of engines AL31FM (AL-35F) more powerful. It is believed that currently Su-35 in construction are equipped with a side handle in the place of the conventional column of control central.
The maneuverability and characteristics STOL (takeoff and landing courts) of Su-35 can be improved thanks to conduits with vectorial push, which were tested in flight on a prototype of Su-35 and which can be rétrofitées on models existing or added in option for the new customers. The proximity of the horizontal stabilizers and the dart of tail with the conduits restricts their movement with a two-dimensional movement (haut-bas); however, this improves in a priceless way the performances with great incidence, the effectiveness in pitching and decreases the landing and takeoff distances.
Admittedly, the operations of dynamic deceleration to which proceeded Su-35 at the time of many air meetings cause a loss of very important energy, but they must be taken very with the serious one. They allow the pilot of Su-35 to point his sight before firing a missile and can prove very important in the whirling combat slow or of engagements out of clipper. Out of the visual field, dynamic decelerations can allow Su-35 to briefly disappear from a radar with Doppler impulses or to make take down a radar tracking.
The avionics multirôle of Su-35 is basically the same one as that of the Migone, although its radar multirôle is larger and more powerful, and that it lays out, moreover, of a N-012 radar directed towards the back, placed in the dart of tail. The new radar has a larger range (approximately 400 km for a target of the size of a hunter) and can continue to 15 targets at the same time and engage six of them. It is probable that several of currently Su-35 in service are provided with a radar Zhuk pH, with an antenna with modern electronic sweeping. The range of detection of this radar is slightly reduced, but its field of sweeping is larger, and it can continue to 24 targets simultaneously.
On mission air-to-ground, the radar had several modes of cartography and telemetry as well as modes of follow-up of ground and avoidance of obstacle. The radar was assisted by a new provided electro-optical system, for the first time, of a laser designator and a camera of television. This made it possible the new version of the plane to use a new range of bombs and missiles laser and radio-controlled. Although Su-35 a formidable air-to-ground capacity has, it is before a whole hunter of air superiority. On mission air-to-air, it can take along the missile R-27 (AA-10 ' Alamo') to guidance semi-active radar, the missile R-77 (AA-12 ' Adder') with guidance active radar, the missile R-73 (AA-11 ' Archer') with infra-red guidance short range just like the Migone. With fourteen external points of fastener, (not requiring additional fuel), Su-35 a remarkable effectiveness with the combat has. Still more remarkable, the apparatus can take along the missile Novator KS-172 AAM-L to very great range or R-37, normally taken along by the Migone.
Su-35 was also equipped with a modern cockpit with four screens with monochromic cathode ray tube, two on the dashboard and two on the side consoles. The latter replaced old posting radar and certain analogical instruments; however of old traditional analogical instruments such as the accelerometer, the meter of incidence, the artificial horizon, the indicator of course, the speedometer and the altimeter were preserved at the medium of the dashboard. However, the new instruments themselves were obsolete (monochromic cathode ray tube posting instead of a liquid crystal display color, more modern) with 20 buttons of input scattered around each screen. Moreover, these instruments were located low in the cockpit, far from the line of vision of the pilot. They represent only one small improvement compared to the entirely analogical cockpit of the ' basic Flanker'. At least one of the prototypes Su-35 would have been equipped with liquid crystal displays, but as much as one knows it, these postings would not have been integrated in the standard appliances.
The Su-27 basic one had already large tanks fuel, but those of Su-35 are even larger (approximately 1500 kg more than Su-27). Moreover, Su-35 is equipped with a pole of retractable in-flight refueling, located on the left windshield. This allows Su-35 to have a very long operating range and to be able to undertake long missions of CAPE (air patrol of combat). To try to make exhaust its reserves while carburizing with one Su-35 is a tactic likely to fail unless you had not just carried out an in-flight refueling and that you engage it whereas it approaches its containing hydrocarbon "Bingo".
With the usual distances from aerial combat, Su-33 navalized of very similar appearance with Is Su-35, although it is a version equipped with ducks of the ' basic Flanker-B'. It is provided with the same system of control of flight and with the same radar ' Slot Back', with all that that implies for its capacities with the combat. Su-30 is a two-seater interceptor based on the Su-27UB original one, provided with a radar ' Slot Back' but without ducks plans, whereas Su-30M is similar, but with a certain capacity multirôle. These versions equipped with radar ' Slot Back' should not be underestimated, and since its radar underwent a series of modifications, it has a better capacity of multi-target continuation, the apparatus remains an enemy operating and mortal. Su-30, in particular, the advantage has of having a second member of crew which reduces the workload of the pilot, and thus improves his capacity to judge situation. Su-30 can also play the part of minis-AWACS which control groups of hunters, generally the Su-27 standard ones, Su-35 or others Su-30. The latter underwent modifications and they would be able to use the same air-to-air armaments as those taken along by Su-35. Su-33 and Su-30 are both equipped with retractable poles of in-flight refueling, which still improves their operating range and their autonomy. Other improvements carried out on Su-27, Su-33 and Su-35 could make these apparatuses about as effective as Su-35. The new Zhuk radar perhaps easily assembled on old aircraft, and even ducks and the new system of control of flight can be installed on the cell of Su-27. Admittedly, the cell of Su-35 is made, amongst other things, of composite materials and lithium and welded aluminium alloys, but these elements are not determining in the improvement of the capacities and the performances of the new model. Thus, one Su-27 improved could almost as powerful as one Be Su-35 recent. Unless having a highly reliable service of information, one must always suppose that a ' Flanker' met as effective as one Is Su-35.
the current versions of the hunter ' Flanker' can all transport missiles anti-radar, and can play the part of apparatuses of in-depth suppression of defense. Better still, the supersonic missile KH-31P with long range and guidance by homing head passive radar can be used like air-to-air anti-radar missile, especially against vulnerable allied apparatuses such as the AWACS E-3 Sentry or E-8 J-STARS. The Russian tactical doctrines stress the strategic importance of these apparatuses as objectives, and the best pilots are trained to coordinate attacks against these objectives and their patrols of hunters in protection HVACAP (High Value Asset Combat Air Patrol or patrol of hunters in protection of objectives of great value).
Another apparatus of similar appearance with Su-35 is the Su-34 plane of attack (as well as the anti-ship version Su-32FN) which, believes one to know, uses the same numerical electric controls of Su-35 flight as and which is equipped with a sophisticated radar of attack. This apparatus is normally heavily charged and transports air-to-surface weapons. It is generally not more dangerous than a ' basic Flanker-B'. Su-34 and Su-32FN can however reserve an unpleasant surprise in the shape of the frightening missile R-73 (AA-11 ' Archer') directed backwards. In co-operation with a radar directed towards the back assembled in the dart of tail, this effectively protects the 6 hours from the apparatus, at short distance.
The dismantling of the USSR and the virtual collapse of the Russian economy caused the stoppage of the works on the advanced hunters which were to replace apparatuses such as the ' Fulcrum' and the ' Flanker', Su-35 and others derived from Su-27 from second generation having to constitute the framework of the Russian Air Force of the new millenium. The revival of Mig-29M/MiG-33 during the middle of the years 1990 provides to frontal aviation a hunter inexpensive multirôle light, to support Su-35, but the large Sukhoi hunter remains the most important apparatus in service in the Russian Air Force and various Air Forces customer. It is believed that the resumption of work over the Mig 1-42 during the years 1990 still did not lead to an apparatus of first line, which makes Su-35 plane of origin or Soviet manufacture more threatening for air defense.