Translated by BabelFish
- Aérospatiale Dauphin
- Aérospatiale Super Frelon
- Aérospatiale/Westland Gazelle
Aérospatiale/Westland Puma et Super Puma - Agusta A 109 - Agusta A 129 Mangusta - Bell 206 Kiowa et JetRanger -
Bell 209 Cobra - Bell Huey - Boeing Vertol CH-47 Chinook - Boeing Vertol H-46 -
Hugues AH-64 Apache - Hugues OH-6 Cayuse et 500M - Kaman SH-2 Seasprite - MBB BO 105 -
Mil Mi-24 Hind - Mil Mi-26 Halo - Mil Mi-28 Havoc - Sikorsky CH53 Sea Stallion -
Sikorsky S-65 - Sikorsky S-70 - Westland Wessex
~ Aérospatiale Alouette ~
The Lark, most famous -- and by far -- of all the European helicopters, owes its customers at the Turboméca company, which was the first in the world to develop light turbines of aeronautical use. When ended, in 1975, the manufacture of Lark II to five places, 1305 specimens had been built by it both including approximately 1 000 313. The HAL LAMA, a version for high altitudes, impressed the cell to II and the engine and the transmission to III (all the engines of III are especially regulated to give some 570 cv at high altitude under the tropical climates). It is manufactured by the Aerospatiale and HAL, its denomination in the Indian army being Cheetah. In 1977, more than 1450 III to seven places had been sold, the most current models were 319B, baptized Chetak in India. The options include/understand various armaments, of the floats, a winch and a radar.
~ Aérospatiale Dauphin ~
Natural Successor of Lark III, the family of the Dolphin combine the techniques tested of Aerospace with new elements like the unit rotor/queue Fenestron, the systems antivibrations and the blades with composite structure. Dolphin 2 twin-turbine engine inaugurated the simple hub of glass fibre rotor Starflex. Essentially, machine with high performances offering up to 14 places, the Dolphin can receive a landing with shoes, a retractable caster. The 365N, 366 and HH-65A offer a better shaped fuselage equipped with a nose lengthened and equipped with ram air inlets, reserves of great capacity under the floor and a gross weight increased. Many military models were developed, in particular the 361H/HCL provided with a large bubble of nose FLIR (infra-red system of vision forwards) for the combat anti-tank devices by "starlight night" and of eight Hot missiles, and the armed Saoudi 365N, for the anti-submarine and anti-ship missions, of four missiles AS.15TT. The HH-651 Dolphin of US Coast Guard is a model of patrol to the very complete equipment, whose 90 specimens were ordered.
~ Aérospatiale Super Frelon ~
Largest and heaviest of the European helicopters of series, the Super Frelon, flew for the first time in 1962 to the factory South-Aviation of Marignane (Marseilles). Derived from SA 3200 Frelon, it profited from the technology and the experiment of Sikorsky for the rotors like for the systems of transition. FIAT, which will bring its assistance to the level of the principal reducer and the transmission, continues to manufacture parts of them. The Super Frelon was built in three versions: SA 321F, civil transport: SA 321G, anti-submarine; and SA 321Ja, utility. SA 321Ja is most frequent; it was sold with several air forces. A under-version called SA 321L was useful much in the forces of South Africa and Israel used the Super Frelon to transport commandos at the time of the raid of 1974 on the airport of Beirut. The 321G, specialized in the detection and the attack of submarines, equips the flotilla 32F with the French Naval Aviation. This one operates in groups, generally made up of four apparatuses of which one transports a panoramic radar Sylphe and a sonar to immersion to locate the objectives, the others being armed each one with four enquiring torpedes. In a role anti-ship, the 321G can transport two Exocet machines to long operating range. Two other uses of the 321G are the towing and the mine sweeping; its three engines constitute a reserve of sufficient power to tow a load of 3000 kg. All the Super Frelon of combat can operate starting from aerodromes, or of ships or water. The machines of the Naval Aviation are seen re-equipped new radars ORB 32 Héraclès and Israel adapts its fleet to the engine General Electric T58-16 of 1895 cv.
~ Aérospatiale/Westland Gazelle ~
Direct Successor of the Lark, this helicopter in five places profit from improved performances, in particular of possibilities of flight IFR. The orders of launching, based on a Franco-British draft-agreement of February 1976 which made of this French plan a united project, included/understood 135 Gazelle AH.1 (341B) for the British army and of the less quantities of HT.2 (341C) for Navy and of HT.3 and HCC.4 (D and E) for the RAF. The 341F is the model of the French Army, H the version for export and the 342K the first of a series of heavier appliances and definitely more powerful. In addition to turbine Astazou XIVH or XIVM, these machines have a rotor of improved Feneston tail: one of the options consists of a cabin prolonged backwards. The principal military types of this heavier series are SA 342L and M, the first very largely exported, the second, an anti-tank model extremely well equipped, intended for the ALAT of the French Army. A group of 160 models M replaced Larks III armies of missiles SS.11; the new helicopter carries six missiles HOT and has of an autopilot SFIM, an autonomous system of navigation without visibility Crouzet Nadir, of a radar Doppler Decca 80, an automatic starter, a autoguidor IR even to full power. The sight car-stabilized APX 397 for the missiles or both Minigun of 7,62 mm drawing forwards is assembled on the roof of the cabin, keeping helicopter "skittle low" as much as possible.
~ Aérospatiale/Westland Puma et Super Puma ~
Conceived initially to satisfy the needs for helicopters tactical any time of the ALAT of the French Army, this fast apparatus became, commercially and financially, the European helicopter more sold. In 1967, it was chosen by the RAF and formed part, with two other machines, of a Franco-British agreement of coproduction. Original version SA 330 has a principal landing gear with dual wheels being retracted in the side careenages of the fuselage, a released cabin equipped with a large releasable sliding door on each side, which can accomodate 20 men, and a cargo sling supporting up to 3200 kg. The missions can be carried out on only one engine and the interval between the talks of the principal dynamic components reaches 3600 hours. More than 650 specimens were manufactured. ACE 332 is the fruit of several years of refinement, directed at the origin of the production of a still better helicopter for the ALAT and the RAF. An intermediate prototype, ACE 331, stole on September 5, 1977; the first HAVE 332 took the air on September 13, 1978 and the models of series suivèrent as of February 1980.
~ Agusta A 109 ~
A 109A, one of the slimmest helicopters and gravitational ever built, baptized at the origin Hirundo (swallow), flew for the first time in the form of a utility machine, August 4, 1971. It has an articulated principal rotor driven by two turbines, a retractable three-wheeled train and, in addition to one or two seats in the cockpit, two lines of three seats in the cabin. In 1977, the Italian army received for evaluation five A 109: two utility models and three aircraft completely equipped, provided with four missiles TOW and a TSU (telescopic system of aiming) planted on the bottom of the end of the nose. The first shootings of test of the TOW gave a score without precedent: 12 shootings, 12 blows with the goal! Any door to believe that this system conceived very well will be manufactured in great quantities in spite of the many competitors and the existence of A 129. Among the characteristics of A 109, it is necessary to note: system of suppression IR, shielding, feeding system while carburizing shock-proof, device of sea landing, winch of rescue, possibility of carrying a load inside or suspended under sling. There is also a series of maritime versions, without clean designation, equipped with fixed altimeter, landing gears fuel reserve increased radar and equipment authorizing various types of missions.
~ Agusta A 129 Mangusta ~
The creation of A 129 Mangusta were announced in February 1973 but Agusta, wisely, put a long time to perfect the plans and, in 1980 still, Essentially gave up turbine LTS 101 of 650 cv for Gem., Mangusta is only has 109A equipped with a new fuselage, broad 0,95 m, in which the copilote/canonier is placed with before and the rather high pilot, in withdrawal, profiting from an angle of sight of 23° downwards, even of face. This apparatus draws a maximum party from the American experiment as for the development of the offensive and defensive systems and protection against the shootings of enemy weapons of at least 12,7 mm and, if possible, of more important gauge. Among its characteristics, it is necessary to note the four-bladed principal rotor entirely articulated, comprising composite blades and dry stages, the deformable fuselage sheltering the seats and the engines behind an anti-roll shieldings and bar protecting the crew, a canopy armoured out of anti-reflecting flat glass made up of hinged panels instantaneously, the multiplication of the systems and an extreme "resistance to the collisions". The standard equipment includes/understands the systems of weapons, the receiver of alarm radar, an anti-radar distributor of lures and artifices pyrotechnics, a system of jamming radar, another of jamming IR. The normal sight of the TOW is installed in the nose. In this form, the beginning of the mass production of A 129 is awaited for the end of 1983. Only machine of this type known out of the United States, it is probable that A 129 will conquer a broad market.
~ Bell 206 Kiowa et JetRanger ~
Initially indicated like the OH-4A and loser of the contest of light helicopter of observation of US Army in 1962, Bell 206 were then proposed like civil helicopter JetRanger, the series including/understanding of the versions 206B (more powerful) and 206L LongRanger (greater capacity). In 1968, US Army reopened its contest for the light helicopter of observation and, this time, indicated Bell like winner and ordered 2200 OH-58A Kiowa similar to the 206A but equipped with broader blades of rotor. For the drive in US Navy, one employs version TH-57A SeaRanger. Canadian designation is CH-136 and the Australian ones assemble a version of the standard 206B for the Army. Agusta builds the AB 206B JetRanger II, especially for the military use (Sweden employs it with torpedes, under designation HKP-6), as well as the AB 206A-1 and B-1, equipped with larger rotors. The sales of all the versions exceed 5500 specimens, the majority being of the five places (except the 206L, seven places) and Kiowa of US Army having a system XM27 with Minigun of 7,62 mm and various other armaments. Bell remelted 275 OH-58A of US Army in OH-58C, making there multiple modifications, in particular a made angular canopy of flat panels of glass, the turbine T63-720 (C20B) with suppression IR, a avionics and instruments new and an optical system of day. One manufactured also a military version, TexasRanger, 206L lengthened LongRanger. Offering seven places, this model can fulfill various missions but mainly is sold in version of attack, equipped with more powerful turbines C30P, of four missiles TOW, a sight assembled on the roof, of a FLIR (system of infra-red vision forwards) and of a laser telemetre/designator.
~ Bell 209 Cobra ~
Huey Cobra flew for the first time in 1965, after only six months of development. It was a version of combat of the UH-1 Iroquois. It combined the dynamic parties -- engine, transmission and system of rotors -- of original Huey with a new ducted fuselage designed for a machine gunner with before and a pilot above and behind him, and for a wide range of fixed weapons propelled. First version, the AH-1Q of US Army, been driven by a T53 engine of 1100 cv, was delivered in 1124 specimens, including eight units for the Spanish navy (attacks ships) and 38 apparatuses of drive for the US Marine Body. The AH-1Q, a version anti-tank often called TOWCobra, transports eight machines TOW as well as the system of suitable aiming. The AH-1J Sea Cobra of the Marine Body and the Iranian army has turbines, the group Twin CAP of 1800 cv, equipped with two coupled T4000 transmissions actuating only one tree. The last versions are the -1Q, -1R, -1S and -1T, more powerful and equipped better. All the Cobra transport a large variety of armaments. The first AH-1S assembled by Fuji for the terrestrial forces of Japanese self-defence took the air in Japan in June 1979. Dornier, into Federal German Republic, transforms the AH-1G of US Army into -1S. Model 249, financed by Bell on stockholders' equity, is an improved Cobra, equipped with four-bladed rotor of Model 412, of a reduced diameter. Another modification being studied, the installation of turbines CT7-2 on an experimental prototype.
~ Bell Huey ~
Used by more forces air and built in greater number than any other military apparatus since the end of the Second World War, the family of the helicopters "Huey" were born from only one prototype, the XH-40, manufactured for US Army. In more than 20 years, its weight was almost multiplied by three, whereas its dimensions hardly changed. The first versions transported eight to 10 seats and received a machine-gun occasionally; among those, appears the TH-1L Seawolf, helicopter of drive for US Navy, and Agusta-Bell 204AS. Model 205 (UH-1D, -1N) profited from a greater power and could transport to 15 people. Dornier one built 352 for the West Germany (Bundeswehr) and similar versions are still in production at Agusta, Fuji and AIDC. Canada supported the construction of the version twin-engine model 212 (UH-1N, CH-135, Canadian designation), also produced in Italy in version ASM, with a new radar, the AQS-13B (sonar with variable depth), and two torpedes. Most powerful Huey is the 214/214B, initially ordered by Iran (under the name of Isfahan) for its army, within which it established several records speed and altitude. The series 214 has a new system of high-output transmission, a suspension "Noda-Matic" which absorbs the vibrations, and of new blades of rotor making it possible to reach 241 km/h. Many Huey (thus named starting from the designation of US Army HU, become UH later) transport various weapons, of the anti-tank machines and the equipment for the combat of night; but the majority remain helicopters of transport of attack or transport of casualties. Largest of the family, the 214ST has a lengthened fuselage of 19 places.
~ Boeing Vertol CH-47 Chinook ~
The development of Vertol 114 began in 1956 at the request of US Army which wanted a helicopter of transport any time propelled by turbine and able to operate under the conditions of most unfavourable altitude and temperature. In configuration doubles rotor, the first YCH-47A flew of access with two engines Lycoming 755 to free turbines of 2 200 cv: it led directly to the production of the CH-47A. With its 2,29 m broad cabin, 1,98 m in height and more than 9,20 m length, the Chinook proved reliable and quickly became the standard helicopter of US Army. One used it soon in the whole world. Until 1972, more than 550 specimens were used to Vietnam, mainly on the battle fields but also rescue of the civil populations (on this occasion, 147 refugees and their luggage were transported in only one Chinook!) and for the recovery of 11 500 damaged planes, whose value can be estimated at more than 3 billion dollars. Model A was replaced by the CH-47B, version very improved and been driven by engines of 2 850 cv, to lead finally in 1967 to the CH-47C, definitely more powerful than its predecessors and equipped with interior reserves of increased capacity. The majority of the apparatuses exported by BV and EM are of this model which, in 1973, started to receive a system of safety of food while carburizing and a system of inspection of the structure. The majority of the machines of US Army (210 up to now) were seen re-equipped glass fibre blades and, since 1979, BV transformed all models A, B and C in CH-47D: L-712 turbines of 3 750 cv of great endurance, transmission supporting the 7 500 cv, electric systems multiplied and improved, blades out of glass fibre, hydraulic systems modular, triple anchoring of slings, control device of improved flight, new avionics, filling of centralized fuel, equipment of survival, group auxiliary power T62. With the end of 1970, one recorded a resumption of the orders which, in 1981, reached the 1 000 units, with a number of new customers. Type 308 intended for Argentina is Antartic of logistics and rescue equipped with a radar, a double system of navigation to inertia and with an autonomy of 2 036 km. The CH-147 bought by Canada present many improvements but 33 transport Chinook HC.1 of the RAF constitutes a version even more recent: 44 places or 24 stretchers, three hooks of slings (hooks before and back 9 072 kg, exchange 12 700 kg).
~ Boeing Vertol H-46 ~
H-46, named Sea Knight by the US forces, had been studied by the Marine Body like transport of attack able to carry to 25 troops equipped or 3 175 kg with loading, and to be posed on water or to take off about it. The fleet of the basic CH-46 is in the course of modernization: this one involves the installation of some 3 000 blades of glass fibre rotor, of more powerful T58-16 turbines (1 870 cv), of seats protecting the crew in the event of accident better, of a feeding system while carburizing less exposed in the engagements and of a material of improved rescue. The model especially designed for the missions of research and rescue is the HH-46. US Navy employs the UH-46 like apparatus of supply. More than 600 specimens of these versions were manufactured and the production continues at Kawasaki; but the decision concerning the Japanese successor considered, equipped with composite blade rotors driven by two turbines GE T700, was placed after. Sweden uses the HKP-7 animated by Gnome, Canada the CH-113 Labrador and CH-113A Voyageur, two versions improved and adapted to the missions of research and rescue at sea by Boeing Vertol and Boeing Canada.
~ Hugues AH-64 Apache ~
A generation after the cancellation of Lockheed AH-56A Cheyenne (first helicopter of escort and attack armed in the world), the AH-64 were chosen by US Army as future helicopter of standard attack in December 1976, following a contest of evaluation which put it at the catches with Bell YAH-63 equipped with a three-wheeled train and placing the pilot in front of the copilot-gunner. The contract of basic development also included/understood Chain Gun, a light gun (of gauge 30 mm, in this case) equipped with a rotary cylinder head without bolt. In 1977, the development of the avionics of point started. Electro-optical systems and of ordering of the weapons, gradually gone up on three new prototypes, which soon three others followed -- under the designation of Total System Aircraft -- which took the air at the beginning of 1980. The middle of 1981 saw to be completed 56 months of work of development and the decision of development in manufacture must be made without delay. Hugues is charged with the rotors and the dynamic components, while Teledyne Ryan manufactures the greatest part of the remainder of the cell (fuselage, wings, nacelles of the engines, compartment of the avionics, canopy and tail). The whole of the structure is conceived to support the blows of the ammunition of all types until the gauge 32 mm. The main rotor blades, for example, comprises five stainless steel spars, a reinforcement structural out of glass fibre tubes, a coating laminated out of stainless steel and a section aft composite, the whole stuck together. The principal sensors are a PNVS (system of night vision for the pilot) and a TADS (system of acquisition and designation of objective) jointly worked out by Martin Marietta and Northrop. Each of the two members of crew has a IHADSS Honeywell (helmet and integrated system of aiming) and can, in the event of urgency, to control the apparatus and to order the weapons. The sight of nose includes/understands a FLIR jour/nuit (infra-red with vision forwards), a laser rangefinder-désignateur and a system of continuation has laser.
~ Hugues OH-6 Cayuse et 500M ~
Victorious initial of contest LOH (Light Helicopter Observation) of US Army in 1961 -- contest very criticized the --, OH-6A is one of the most compact machines of the history of aviation, taking into account its possibilities. The standard version transports two members of crew and four, or more than 454 kg troops of electronics and various armaments, of which the machine-gun XM-27 or grenade thrower XM-75, plus a very broad range of weapons of infantry. US Army in bought 1434, and several hundreds of other specimens, soldiers or paramilitary, were produced by Hugues or other companies holders of the licence. BredaNardi provides to the customers an assistance for the training of the crews and the head office obtained an enormous success by working out a vast series of military models not exceeding the gross weight originating. The principal models of the Defender series are the Scout Standard, equipped with a field instrumentation and rockets, with a machine-gun of 7,62 mm or Chain Gun of 30 mm, with Minigun of 7,62 mm or a grenade thrower of 40 mm; the 500MD/ASW conceived for the anti-submarine fight (bought in particular by Spain and Taiwan) and provided with a radar of nose, a MAD (detecting of magnetic anomaly) towed and with two self-directional torpedes; and Defender II which have of remarkable equipment of avionics and large sight for TOW assembled on the mast, as well as other armaments.
~ Kaman SH-2 Seasprite ~
Initially named HU2K-1 and baptized Seasprite, this helicopter particularly quite shaped was initially propelled by a turbine installed very close to the head of rotor. It transports a broad range of loads, including nine passengers in his central cabin and two men of crew in the nose. The principal elements of the landing gear to caster of tail are entirely retractable. Some 190 specimens were built and modified later on with two T58 engines contained in side nacelles. The HH-2C, model utility of rescue, have various armaments, of which a turret of Minigun chin and machine-guns or guns on the sides; the HH-2D are not armed. Seasprite was used for the tests of air-to-air missiles of air defense Sparrow III and Sidewinder. All Seasprite are appreciably modified since 1970 to be used within the framework of the LAMPS (general-purpose light airborne system) for the fight anti-submarine and anti-missile. The SH-2D transports more than two tons of special equipment, including one powerful radar of nose, of the buoy-sonar, a magnetic system of location, electronic systems of countermeasures, new systems of navigation and communications and torpedes Mk 44 or Mk 46. All the old models will be modified thereafter according to standards' of the SH-2F which includes/understands an improved rotor, also improved sensors and armaments. Although it is only one temporary platform of the system LAMPS, the SH-2 represents an important program. The first of the 88 new SH-2F Seasprite entered in service within squadron HSL-33 in the middle of 1973; to the end of the decade, 88 specimens had been delivered by it. Since then, Kaman transformed helicopters HS and HH-2D according to the same configuration, programs finished in March 1982. No other general-purpose armed helicopter will be available for the buildings of surface of US Navy before 1984, when the SH-60B takes over gradually. Seasprite are deployed aboard destroyer, frigates and the cruiser most modern.
~ MBB BO 105 ~
The BO 105, one of the whole first small helicopters has two turbines uses a very sophisticated rotor, developped at the point with the assistance of the Aerospatiale: the blades out of glass fibre, fixed at an elastic forged titanium hub, confer on the BO 105 an extraordinary agility: it succeeded of the operations that did not try any other helicopter, except the Lynx! Although enough expensive, all the versions is equipped perfectly in IFR (bad weather) and, in 1981, more than 1 100 specimens had been sold, certain by foreign manufacturers working under licence. The most important orders relate in particular on 227 BO 105M (also baptized VBH) intended for the German Army and to 323 BO 105P, version anti-tank device (also called PAH-1) bought by the same customer. These two models have of a reinforced transmission but normal engines (C20B). MBB made steal a still improved machine, the 105 LS, equipped with turbines Allison 250-C28C, 550 cv. The 105P was sold to several customers, always with the sight assembled on the roof in order to enable him to operate low tail. The majority of the users of this model have the Doppler radar of navigation Singer ASN-128. The United States, marketing is ensured by Boeing but one does not await military orders. The BO 106 is equipped with a cabin a little broader, offering 7 places instead of 5, but it is not very probable that it is manufactured in series being given the existence of the MBB/ Kawasaki BK 117, a helicopter in any higher and larger point, which accomplished its first flight in June 1979. This machine, propelled by two turbines Avco Lycoming LTS 101 of 650 cv and able to carry 10 passengers, controls included/understood, became available to the end of 1981; no military order had been announced still at this time.
~ Mil Mi-24 Hind ~
When it appeared for the first time at the west, at the beginning of 1974, this family of helicopters were regarded as a whole of versions of combat directly derived from Semi-8 but, if the engines are at least also powerful, they appear smaller and the majority of dimensions of the cell, including the diameter of the rotor, are reduced. The development of the basic plan started in the years 1960, of living of Millet, to satisfy the needs for the Aviation of the Face: this one wanted an apparatus able to convey a group of eight men until the face and to provide him the support of air-to-ground shootings. The Semione is surprisingly large and, if it preserves an articulated rotor, old if not obsolete system, any door to believe that it can be also nimble only the Western combat helicopters. But, at the same time, all the versions extremely powerful, are well designed and strongly armed. Among their characteristics, it is necessary to note the retractable three-wheeled train, four members of crew, a large cabin, foils the armament and a complete range of sensors. The models D and E, whose designation could be Semi-27 and nonsemi-24, presents a fuselage before redrawn, sheltering two members of crew only (the operator of the weapons with before and the pilot, higher, behind him), and various other modifications in a rotor of tail tractor installed on the left of the drift instead of the rotor of push placed on the line (this characteristic is from now on inherent with the majority of the preceding machines, thus modified). The gun is a new model with fast shooting (3200 blows per minute according to certain testimonys), to point using a sight stabilized enlarger, placed in a large bulge under the right side of the nose; this bulge shelters also a laser system of continuation for the missiles with initial guidance (certain helicopters of this type are always armed with missiles "Swatter" for the drive). A system of television for weak luminosity seems also gone up on the aircraft, as well as a probe sensitive at the low speeds, fixed projecting right in front of the windshield of the operator of the weapons. An active laser designator and a FLIR (infra-red system with vision forwards) should to it be added.
~ Mil Mi-26 Halo ~
The Mil Mi-26 'Halo' was designed to replace the Mi-6 Mil, but with more important aptitudes from 50 to 100 %. With its more or less similar cabin with that of Lockheed C-130 Hercules, the Mi-26 Mil is the most powerful helicopter of the world. A prototype flew for the first time on December 14, 1977, and the military evaluations started in 1983, and ended in the service entrance of this helicopter in 1985.
Although it is a little smaller than the Mi-6 Mil, and than the diameter of its rotor has 3 m less, the Mi-26 Mil has a gear box sophisticated and uses a great number of composite materials and alloys aluminium-lithium to preserve a certain lightness and to ensure a tare weight from only 1 000 kg higher than that of Mi-6. Its two D-136 turbines are more twice the more powerful than those of the ' Hook', and its sophisticated rotor with eight blades enables him to practically raise the double of the payload.
the fuselage of the Mi-26 Mil shelters not only the five members of crew but also 80 soldiers and their equipment or 60 stretchers. A permanent compartment intended for four passengers is located at the back of the cockpit, but the principal compartment can be reconfigured to transport passengers, freight or to be used as ambulance. The loading is carried out by a door lower opening downwards and equipped with a folding integral slope, and two higher doors of compartment. Two electric cranes of a capacity of 2 500 kg, a winch of a capacity of 500 kg and carpets travelling make it possible to handle the cargoes.
the versions headquarters of the ' Halo' are in production currently, and only one pennies alternative was announced: the Mi-26TZ tanker. A version of transport more sophisticated, equipped with more powerful engines and blades of composite material rotor would be under development. A Mi-26 Mil of the Russian Air Force, clandestinely observed with the airfield of Mil in Moscow in 1992, seemed to be equipped with a gun in end of nose (or perhaps of a pole of in-flight refueling). The basic Mi-26 Mil is used by Aeroflot and the Russian Air Force, and was exported towards India (being currently used in the unit of helicopters No 126 for Chandigarh). Some also evolve/move within the Ukrainian armed forces, although this cannot be confirmed.
~ Mil Mi-28 Havoc ~
Although Kamov Ka-50 'Hokum' was selected with the detriment of the Mid Mil 28, Mil claims all the same to have received an order of the forces armed Russian and continuous to promote its apparatus actively. The ' Havoc' is traditional a combat helicopter, equipped with a gun under the nose and spread out armoured cockpits sheltering the pilot (with the back) and the artillerist (with before). The first of the three Mi-28 Mil prototypes accomplished its first flight on November 10, 1982.
The conventional rotor of tail with three blades was replaced by a type of rotor of tail in ' ciseaux' on the second ettroisième prototypes, with two independent rotors with two blades on the same axis. They are placed at approximately 35° one of the other and form X narrow. The prototypes were also equipped with suppressors of exhaust.
the Mi-28 Mil is equipped with a gun to a barrel 2A42 of 30 mm located under the nose, with two boxes of 150 shells which follow all the movements of the gun in order to prevent that it is not stopped. The gun moves with horizontal on 110° each side of the central line, assembles 13° and goes down from 40°. The gun has two rates of fire: 300 shots/min for ' air-to-ground use, and 900 shots/min for the air-to-air use. The curtailed wings are equipped with four pylons. Each point of carrying can transport 480 kg, including four missiles AT-6 ' Spiral' with launchers or a variety of pods of rockets. They can be charged by using a crank and an integrated winch. The end of the wings shelters a chaff launcher infrarouges/electromagnetic. The cockpit is composed of panels of glass armoured anti-reflecting dishes and is protected by a shielding from titanium and ceramics.
the important components are strongly protected and doubled; they are also protected by less important systems and objects. In the case of a collision, the members of crew are protected by seats absorbing energy and being able to support an emergency landing with a rate of fall of 12 m (40 FT) a second. The system of fire exit explodes the doors and inflates rolls of air on the sides of the fuselage. The members of crew roll on these rolls before opening their parachute.
a hatchway located on the left side, the back of the wing, makes it possible to reach the compartment of the avionics like an enough large zone accomodating two to three people (a little with narrow). This makes it possible Mi-28 to recover the crew of another cut down helicopter. The standard Mi-28N Mil are equipped with a system of detection by before to the infra-red raies and with a television on low level of light located in the nose and each side of the turret of the telemetre/designator, as well as cockpit compatible with the glasses of night vision. One also finds a radome intended for illuminer/guider the missiles. An alternative of Mi-28, apparently baptized Mi-40 and intended for transport, would currently be under development.
~ Sikorsky CH53 Sea Stallion ~
Developed to replace the heavy lift helicopters Sikorsky CH-37 of the American Bodies of the Navy, the S-65 prototype accomplished its first flight on October 14, 1964, and entered in service in September 1965. Hundred forty and one specimens of the first model of production, the CH-53A, were built, but more none is currently in service in the United States. The last apparatuses of this type were useful at the time of the drive of the Navy and in units of reserve, but were withdrawn from the service in July 1993.
Propelled by two T64 assembled engines on each side of the higher fuselage, and making use of the transmission tested by the CH-54 Tarhe, the CH-53 had a large cabin in the shape of box, with a ramp loading back and side doors located forwards. The principal landing gear folded up in aerodynamic devices floats placed in the fuselage lower section, and as a whole, the helicopter was conventional. Its size was however imposing and after having made its appearance in the zone of the engagements in Viêt-nam, it acquired the reputation to be able to transport important loads, in an internal way or thanks to its hook of cargo. Surnommé Sea Stallion (Standard of the seas), the CH-53A was going to become the principal heavy helicopter of the American Bodies of the Navy, titrates that it preserved nowadays through its improved versions.
the principal modern version of Stallions of first generation is the CH-53D, of which 124 were equipped with improved engines, automatically folding wings and an interior altered in order to be able to transport more soldiers. Many of these apparatuses are always in service near the Navy, in the maritime Groups air (Marine Air Groups or MAG) following: MAG 26 in New To rivet, North Carolina (HMM-362, HMT-204); MAG 16 In Tustin, California (HMH-363, HMH-462); MAG 24 In Kanehoe Bay, Hawaii (HMH-463); and the unit of reserve of the American Bodies of Navy MAG 41 with NAS Dallas, Texas (HMH-777). Two apparatuses VH-53D are assigned to unit HMX-1 of transport of VIP with Quantico.
Sea Stallion were implied in many conflicts since the war of Viêt-nam, in particular with the Grenade, in Panama, in Lebanon and in the Gulf. Within the framework of missions of air raids, the model D is configured to be able to transport 55 soldiers with all their equipment or 3630 kg of internal cargo. Because of the important size of the CH-53 and availability of the CH-46, Sea Stallion is usually used for the transport of equipment rather than of personnel. However, for missions of fast evacuation, the CH-53 is ideal, its internal volume being able to accomodate a great number of people evacuated in emergencies, while its considerable autonomy reduced time spent to fill the tank enters the exits. For missions of convoying, the CH-53D can be equipped with five auxiliary tanks in the cabin. Although the Body of the Navy is the principal user of the first generation of CH-53, it is not only. Some CH-53A which had been used by the American Body of the Navy were transferred to the US Air Force as TH-53A, were used by 1550ème FTS in Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, for the training of the crews of fleet MH-53. They replaced the CH-53A borrowed from the American Bodies of the Navy. The interest carried by the US Air Force with the first versions leads to the purchase of the platforms of rescue HH-53B and HH-53C, which made use for the first time of the poles of in-flight refueling and the external tanks fixed on the aerodynamic devices floats of the landing gear. The CH-53C did not have a pole of supply, and was used for the formation, the general tasks of transport and the support of advanced teams of air control based on the ground. The veterans of fleet CH/HH 53B/C were modernized to be in conformity with standards MH-53J in the Eighties.
the first generations of CH-53 had proven their capacity to recover cut down apparatuses, but these operations were marginal. The American Body of the Navy thus claimed a heavy helicopter, having a capacity of soulevage 1,8 times higher than that of the CH-53A, while remaining enough small to operate starting from amphibious vehicles of attack. On its side, Sikorsky had worked in the same direction, and it had the idea to add a third T64 engine to the basic concept. It is assembled behind the mast of the rotor, and it is fed by an entry located on the left.
the new version accepted the job number S-80, and first prototype YCH-53E made its first flight with Stratford for the third time March 1974, initially with a large control surface and a horizontal stabilizer low. The apparatus was propelled by three T64-GE-415, making function a principal rotor with seven blades thanks to an improved transmission. The CH-53 with two engines have six blades of rotor. The cell itself was longer than that of the preceding versions of the CH-53, allowing the transport of 55 soldiers and light vehicles, while the aerodynamic devices floats of the fuselage were lengthened in order to contain more fuel. A capacity to transport fuel outside had been envisaged also from the very start. After the destruction of the prototype first in an accident on the ground, the second prototype flew with an empennage altered, the horizontal control surface being tilted with 20° towards the left and equipped with an empennage of wing in M assembled cantilever towards the line.
The first of the CH-53E of préproduction stole on December 8, 1975, but it is only in February 1981 that the first unit of the American Bodies of the Navy, HMH-464 (today HMM-464), acquired an operational capacity with MCAS New River, North Carolina. Five additional units were equipped with this model (HMM-461 with New River, HMH-361, 465 and 466 with Tustin, California, and HMT-302 with Tustin for formation). The CH-53E is now a vital element of the operations amphibians of the American Bodies of the Navy, and it is used in parallel with the CH-46, of smaller size, in the missions of attack. Thanks to its capacity of soulevage, the CH-53E is especially used to rather transport material than of the soldiers. In a typical mixed squadron on board a vessel of attack, one finds four CH-53E. This version was abundantly used during the operations of Storm of the desert.
US Navy threw its reserved on Sea Stallion because of its capacity to supply the ships starting from a base on the firm ground, the combination between the power of soulevage and autonomy proving to be ideal for this task. A reduced number of apparatuses fly with the HC-1 with NAS North Island, California, HC-2 with NAS Norfolk, Virginia, and HC-4 with NAS Sigonella, Sicily, respectively supporting the fleets of the Pacific, the Atlantic and the Mediterranean.
the model of export S-80E was not sold yet abroad. The number of apparatuses acquired by US Navy and the Body of the Navy is currently 142, although the total figure envisaged either of 177, the production having taken end in 1995.
~ Sikorsky S-65 ~
Obviously derived from the S-61, the series of S-65 includes/understands the largest helicopters and most powerful manufactured apart from Soviet Union. The dynamic parts (rotors, reducers and control device) were, in the beginning, similar to those of the models S-64 Skycrane, but used the titanium and the folding blades of rotor. From January 1967, several of these versions were used to Vietnam where they ensured of innumerable missions such as the recovery of the cut down planes. In 1968, a standard CH-53A makes a success of a long series of loops and barrels, while others established records speed and transport of load, the major part of the first series of the 139 CH-53A was intended for the Marine Body, for which the requirements in the heavy helicopters of attack had launched the program in August 1962. Fifteen specimens on the whole were transferred to Navy, of the RH-53A assigned to the mine sweeping and to the relative countermeasures, and five with USAF. This apparatus normally removes 38 soldiers, 24 stretchers and 4 male nurses or 3 629 kg of loading, introduced by the doors crawls back opening over all the width of the fuselage. To fulfill the requirements of the war of Vietnam, the HH-53B Super Jolly) took the air in March 1967, accomodating 6 men of crew, 3 Minigun or guns, shielding, system of in-flight refueling, tanks additional and winch of recovery. The CH-53C was a very close version of transport. The CH-53D, more powerful, had folding blades automatically and could carry 55 soldiers; 126 specimens were built by it for the Navy in 1969-1972 and the majority of the versions of export are similar. Navy accepted 20 RH-53D, equipped with flotteurs/réservoirs releasable increasing operating and the probe range of in-flight refueling; a small number of these apparatuses was delivered to Japan. The HH-53H Super Jolly is a HH-53C transformed by USAF and equipped with equipment Pave Low for research and recovery of night and by all times, including/understanding a system of navigation to inertia of B-52, a Doppler radar, a display screen of the charts, an infra-red system AAQ-10 and a radar of reading of ground APQ-159. The CH-53E Super Stallion is an apparatus almost completely different, selected in 1973 and finally put in mass production in 1978. The rotor comprises seven blades, longer, of mixed structure titane/fibre of glass, the transmission supports 13 140 cv, the fuselage is lengthened and, among many the other changes, it is necessary to note the redrawn tail which, because of the larger rotor, was tilted of 20° towards the left.
~ Sikorsky S-70 ~
The UH-60 were selected in December 1976 after four years of competition with Boeing Vertol for the development of a UTTAS (system of aircraft of utility transport tactical) intended for US Army. Conceived to transport a group of 11 men and three members of crew, Black Hawk can exchange the eight seats of soldiers against four stretchers; outside, under slings 3628 kg of loading can be suspended. The rotor with structure in honeycomb, composed of a mixture of titanium, glass fibres and Nomex, is de-iced electrically, just like the windshields of the pilots; the equipment includes/understands complete systems of assistance to navigation, communications and of alarm radar. The deliveries with the 101e airborne division took place in 1979-81, followed, in 1981 still, of a batch of 100 apparatuses provided to the 82e division. The EH-60A is a version ECM (electronic countermeasures) equipped with a complementary system of alarm radar Quick Fix II (as on Bell EH-1H), with a distributor of leurres/artifices pyrotechnics and an infra-red jammer. EH-60B SOTAS (system of acquisitions of objectives "stand-off") is a platform specialized in the detection and the identification of the mobile objects of the battle field by all times; it has a computer terminal installed in the cabin and supplied with the large revolving antenna of the radar of monitoring placed under the fuselage (principal wheels retracting itself to release it). The SH-60B of Navy constitutes the air vehicle of the LAMPS III (general-purpose system airborne light) whose IBM is the first project superintendent. Although it takes again the cell of S-70, it is a completely different helicopter, equipped with equipment ASW (anti-submarine fight), ASST (monitoring and designation of anti-ship objectives), of research and recovery, evacuation of wounded and supply at sea. It comprises a radar APS-124 in before fuselage, 25 pneumatic launchers of acoustic buoys in the left side and a probe MAD (detecting of magnetic anomaly) towed ASQ-81 on the right side, with the back.
~ Westland Wessex ~
In 1956, Royal Navy gave up its project to buy Bristol-board 191 propelled by two Gazelle in favour of the less expensive and less risky solution of Sikorsky S-58 (US Navy HSS-1) propelled by only one Gazelle turbine. After several other modifications, approximately 150 Wessex anti-submarine were then used by Fleet Air ARM. The HAS.1 was seen supplanted by the HAS.3, called "Camel" because of its dorsal radome. The RAF chooses a version equipped with turbines Coupled gnome and ordered more than 100 specimens of utility version HC.2 and nearly 100 transport of attack HU.5 Commando. Two CC.4 arranged for the transport of the personalities are assigned to Queen' S Flight. The HMAS Melbourne is the principal floating base of 27 HAS.31 of the RAN. Those, like those of the British units, were gradually modernized since 1965. Many types of armaments are used, the HAS carrying one or two self-directional torpedes and all the versions being able to be equipped with guns (two GPMG of 7,62 mm, guns of 20 mm or other models) and with a broad range of rocket launcher, four missiles SS.11 or other loadings. Curiously, the normal payload of Wessex is of 16 soldiers (two less than S-58) or of 7 stretchers (one of less than S-58) whereas the transportable maximum weight is the same one (1 814 kg). Except the machines of the RAN, all the versions of export have the engine Coupled gnome and are characterized by the presence, on each side, a large conduit instead of the smaller and twinned pipes of exhaust. In the years 1980, one can hope that these extremely useful machines will have systems of infra-red suppression and electronic equipment.