Chronicle Aviation > 1930 - 1950

Chronicles

Translated by BabelFish

< 1910 - 1930
1950 - 1970 >

Africa, January 8 1930

"the eye of a monstrous cyclops, perched on the roof of Africa." Thus Walter Mittelholzer describes Kibo, most beautiful of the two volcanos capping Kilimandjaro, which it has just flown over for the first time. Familiar of the flights in mountainous area, this Swiss exploring photographer decided to tackle Kilimandjaro, culminating to 6010 Mr. With the pilot Alfred Künzle, it takes off by a sky without cloud and flies over the populated plains of zebras and antelopes. Their Fokker is stripped to the maximum to decrease its mass and to increase its ceiling. Close to the goal, Künzle diverts the plane towards the northern face, in the search of ascending currents, and goes up to more than 6000 Mr. Mittelholzer, fascinated, forgets of it its migraine due to the lack of oxygen and point its objective on the open crater of Kibo. Half an hour later, the crew regains the base camp.


Great Britain, January 16 1930

It is a discovery which should have very great consequences for aeronautics. Frank Whittle, an English engineer, has just deposited a preliminary patent for a turbojet. They was the officers of the RAF designed an engine which, instead of printing a movement with a propeller, ejects a gas flow creating the propulsion. The surrounding air passes in a compressor to rotor, which increases its temperature. This compressed air emerges then in a combustion chamber where the fuel is burned with constant pressure. The relaxation caused by combustion is done initially through a turbine assembled on the same axis that the compressor and continues in a conduit of exit, causing a force of reaction.


San Francisco, February 1 1930

the seaplane competes with the boat for the crossing of bay of San Francisco. Tynan Jr, which has just launched its Air Ferries in the Californian sky, believes in it firmly. Its "amphibious trams" ensure the connection between San Francisco, Alameda, Oakland and Vallejo. 100 000 people lose each day several hours to cross bay by maritime ferry. To attract most fortunate of them, Tynan and its associates misent on the quality of their services: the landing stages, located close to the terminus of the shuttles, are in the heart of the business districts; the frequency of the connections is high (three times per hour); finally, the amphibious seaplanes used, taking off and landing on plants artificial, ensure the safety, while reducing to less than two minutes the time wasted during the loadings and unloadings, thanks to floating docks.


the United States, May 6 1930

the last-born child of the large American manufacturer, Model 200 Monomail, whose aérodynamisme was particularly neat, deserves its qualifier of modern transport aircraft. At the origin of its creation, Eddy Hubbard wanted to design a monoplane of transport entirely out of metal. At once, the engineers from Boeing put themselves at work in the greatest secrecy. The fruit of their efforts is impressive. Monomail, entirely metal, is equipped with a wing low, slightly tilted, and of a retractable landing gear. The compartment for the post office is located in front of the cockpit, which remained open.


New York, September 3 1930

both frenchies would never have imagined such a reception! New York is in jubilation to acclaim the French crew which has just overcome the Atlantic Ocean. Party on September 1 at 10. 55 of Le Bourget, they reached Curtiss Field, close to New York, in 37 hours and 18 minutes. A first carried out at the mean velocity of 167 km/h. The two heroes tried this exploit in all knowledge of cause. Dieudonné Costes, chief of edge of Breguet 19 baptized Point of interrogation, once again, showed its know-how. As for Maurice Bellonte, one knew already his talents of navigator trained at the school of air transport. The preparation of the crossing of the Atlantic was meticulous. The plane, painted in red, is decorated of a white question mark, affixed in fact by mechanics in 1929, whereas the Breguet factory, which prepared the apparatus, kept secret its future destination jealously. Now, it is known and the beautiful red biplane flies away towards the sea. The two men can communicate only by means of messages written on bits of paper, such as: "you will give me a little chicken and hot bubble." They fly over Southampton at 11 a.m. 50; at 1 p.m. 45, the Irish coast; finally at 2 p.m. 50, the Shannon river. Between 19 and 22 hours, the apparatus must be diverted its road, because of atmospheric turbulences, and makes a hook towards north. From 22 hours at 4 a.m. 35, the Point of interrogation again makes hook, towards the south this time, to join the United States by the most direct line. At 11 a.m. 25,24 hours after the departure, it will be located by the station of Saint-Pierre-and-Miquelon. Above Boston, a plane comes to the meeting from Costes and Bellonte which are known at the end of their sorrows. Indeed, they land in Curtiss Field 11 minutes after midnight. Hardly left the apparatus, the two heroes are carried in triumph by crowd to a hangar where wait all the French personalities then present in New York: the single-handed sailor Alain Gerbault, the player of tennis Jean Borotra... One entonne the Marseillaise. Suddenly, Costes and Bellonte notice a large thread-like silhouette which smiles to them since a corner of the hangar. Charles Lindbergh, came there to congratulate them in person. It is at this moment which the French include/understand that they are, them also, entered the legend. It is then the parade in Broadway ave, under thousands of telephone sheets of directories falling from this sky which they overcame.


Istres, June 10 1931

10520 Kilometers. This time, the record of distance in closed loop is largely beaten. Brix and Doret can be satisfied with their Trait of union, monoplane Dewoitine D.33, with the hurled lines, grace to which they traversed this distance, without supply, in 70 hours and 11 minutes. It is the first time that the course of the 10 000 km is thus crossed.


Roosevelt Field, July 1 1931

the Winnie Mae of Oklahoma returned without encumbers of its turn of the world. With the orders of Lockheed Vega, Wiley Post, which, if it is an ace of piloting, is not one-eyed! Gatty, the navigator is, just like Post, decided well to go more quickly than during the precedent turn of the world, in 1924. June 23, they take off of Roosevelt Field (New York) at 4 a.m. 55. The first stage leads them to Newfoundland. They take off then for Europe: course on England. To fall it the night, Post controls with the instruments, helped by the indications of Gatty. They will be posed then in Moscow, then in Novosibirsk, in central Russia. To gain Canada, they must fly over the Rocky Mountains, and, under a beating rain, they land in Edmonton. Lastly, at 0 a.m. 47, they arrive at Roosevelt Field where a crowd of 10 000 people awaits them. Post and Gatty thus traversed some 25 000 km in 207 hours - is eight days and 15 hours - and 51 minutes.


Tokyo, August 26 1931

It is as a technical adviser for the Side American that Charles Lindbergh and his wife, Anne, left for a reconnaissance flight towards the East. July 29, the couple of school of New York, on board a seaplane Lockheed Sirius, and will have to reach many stages before the arrival in Japan then in China, goal of the voyage. Anne is charged with the radio. The most beautiful compliment which it is ever received besides came from a radio operator operator on his way of taking and of sending messages: "no man could better do", says him it. The weather is terrible. It passes by Ottawa, Point Barrow, where the few white lost at the Eskimos accomodate them with stupor. Lastly, they arrive to Tokyo in spite of a persistent fog. In a few days, they will leave towards China.


Oran, 26 Mars 1932

the pilots Lucien Bossoutrot and Maurice Rossi have achieved for two years of many performances. They have this time carried the record of distance in closed loop to 10 620,480 km with the orders of Blériot 110. And that, in spite of a leakage with a tank after 40 hours of flight, which caused the loss of 30 fuel L. Moreover, the conditions of sale made fall the average from the plane to 145 km/h. Blériot 110 was drawn, at the beginning of the year 1929, by engineer Filippo Zappata which conceived it especially to beat records of distance. Blériot was baptized Joseph Brix in homage to the aviator missing here a few months in the Ural. After a first trial flight, on May 1930, it quickly was essential like an apparatus on exceptional qualities. This record was held since June 1931 by Brix, Doret and Cadiou on Dewoitine 33 Trait of union.


the Cape, November 18 1932

the competition beats its full between the Mollison husbands: Amy, ex-Johnson, celebrate it actress, do better than her Jim husband at the distance London it Cape, than it crossed in four days and seven hours on board her Puss Moth, the Desert Cloud. To establish this new record, Amy risked a night flight between Cameroun and Angola "I spent 13 hours to traverse 1300 km, without visibility", it declared with his arrival. The marriage of Mollison constitutes in England the lovesong of the year. They became engaged the day of their meeting, with the Quaglino, restoring in vogue in London in this moment. At the time, alluring it Jim, who had exchanged his accent of Glasgow for the speech to punish of Oxford, would have been promised to a young aristocrat. The weddings of Jim and Amy took place on July 29 with Saint-Georges Hanover Square in the most strict intimacy. What did not prevent the crowd of ruer at the exit of the church to see celebrates it couple to flee towards her hotel. Less than three weeks later, August 18, Jim took off of Port-Marnock, in Ireland, to try the transatlantic first Europe America in solo. Its Puss Moth, The Hearts Content, with 725 gasoline L, is eight times the capacity of origin. Mollison faced winds of face of 65 km/h and rejoined Pennfield Ridge (Canada) in 31 hours. It had nothing any more but two hours of gasoline to the arrival, having wandered seven hours of a fog. Which risks will it take tomorrow?


Native, February 11 1933

After the abandonment of the seaplanes Latécoère, the line of South America thinks of having found the plane ideal with Arc-in-ciel. Controlled by Mermoz, this three-engined designed by engineer Couzinet made a success of his first crossing of the Atlantic. After a tour in Argentina and in Brazil, it is on the point of regaining Europe. The idea of this experimental raid returns to Mermoz. It is really filled with enthusiasm by this revolutionary plane, built around a low value cantilever. January 12, it takes off of Le Bourget with six people on board. After a first stopover with Istres, a broken pane stops the voyage to Port-Etienne, from where it sets out again the 13 towards Saint-Louis of Senegal. Delayed by pouring rain, the plane leaves Africa the 16 in the morning and lands the very same day in Natal. It crossed the ocean of 14. 27 minutes of flight at a regular speed of 230 km/h with a maximum safety. Accomodated triumphantly for this performance, it is celebrated in Rio, then sets out again for Buenos Aires and joined Natal.


the Cape, February 14 1933

the new four-engined plane Of Imperial Airways, Armstrong Whitworth 15 baptized Atalanta, arrived from London today, after a flight of 71 hours endurance. To rejoin the South-African capital, Imperail Airways chose this plane of an autonomy from 600 to 900 km, which can transport nine passengers, mail and freight at the speed of 185 km/h. Anxious to meet the needs for the company, its originator, John Lloyd, a monoplane in the place of the traditional biplane drew. The monoplane, by its aerodynamic configuration, is faster in flight. The configuration high wing and fixed train are appropriate for the African lines.


Paris, October 26 1933

It is not the first time that it comes to Paris. Charles Lindbergh, six years after his historical exploit, returns visit to the Parisian ones. This time, its seaplane landed on the Seine and enthusiastic crowd saw, accompanying the colonel, a delicate silhouette; the wife of Lucky Lindy, Anne Morrow-Lindbergh, is voyage. Discrete, she did not want to better do herself to know the Parisian ones. However, it will be at the sides of her husband, at the time of the visit obliged with the embassy of the United States. It is with much courtesy that it will leave to a horde photographers take stereotypes of the couple. The voyage of Lindbergh has nothing to do with tourism. The pilot, recently committed by the Side American Airways, explores the transatlantic road of the North which will allow, perhaps, a first air service between the United States and Europe.


Darwin Port, May 23 1934

It is large, beautiful and is not afraid of nothing. Top of its 24 years, this New Zealand young person with the radiant smile has just astounded the world. Party alone with the orders of an old man Gipsy de Moth with whom it was not likely reasonably any to succeed, Joan Batten triumphed over the 16 000 km which separate London de Port Darwin, in Australia. It made the voyage of 14 days, 23 hours and 30 minutes. It beats the record of Amy Johnson of more than four days! Girl of a dentist, born a few weeks after the exploit of Blériot, it received her first flight with famous Kignsford-Smith. Unpleasantly surprising its family while deciding to become pilot and not pianist, it leaves in 1929 for London in order to pass its private patent and to set up, with a youthful enthusiasm, its flight towards Australia. Deaf person with the irony of the journalists vis-a-vis to her two preceding failures, Joan testifies, by her notch, of the will of the women who decided to fly.


Oakland, January 12 1935

They are 10 000 to have been given go on the track of Oakland. It is not yet midday when they see finally so much awaited Vega. With the orders, Amelia Earhart is smiling. There is evil to imagine that the young woman, part of Honolulu, covered 3875 km into 18. 16 minutes. If it is carried in triumph, it is not by what it acts of a woman. She is the first pilot to have achieved such an exploit. She had however believed not to be able to leave. The sky of Honolulu was covered with clouds and a tropical waterspout had just struck the city. Faithful to its reputation is strong of its experiment, it decided despite everything to take off. She does not regret it.


the United States, May 15 1935

Taylor Cub E-2 is a plane so simple that even a child can control. In Savannah, in Georgie, young a 11 year old boy flew only on board this small plane, designed by Oilman Piper. In 1929, this last invested in the firm of aviation of the Taylor brothers. But, little after America sinks in the depression. To start again the sales, Piper suggests building an elementary plane at a minimal price. Thus is born the model E-2 Cub, light and compact, propelled by a Brownbach engine of 20ch. Hélas! The engine output is insufficient, and the plane can hardly fly. It is the bankruptcy. But Piper continues its idea. It repurchases the actions of the Taylor company and team this time E-2 Cub of Continental Motor of 37 CH with four cylinders cooled by air. The plane is proposed at the cost of 1325 $: it obtains an enormous success.


the United States, December 17 1935

It could not y have better conclusion for this trial flight. American Airlines modified its purchase order in Douglas. It does not act any more maintaining to deliver 10 planes, but 20, divided into eight DST (Douglas Sleeper Transport) and 12 in version DC-3. DST can transport 14 people installed in superimposed berths 2 X 2. Version DC-3 will carry 21 passengers sitting in traditional seats. This version will be available only in eight month. On the ground, them to distinguish from the DC-2, the simplest manner for the layman is to count the windows. The DC-2 has of them seven along the fuselage and the DC-3 counts eight of them. The trial flight took place at the aerodrome of Clover Field, in California. The apparatus took off at 3 p.m., controlled by Carl Cover, assisted by Fred Stineman and of Frank Collebohm. It was 1. 40 of flight without history. For Douglas, this success is encouraging. The study of this plane required 4 500 000 $ of loan in the State. The profitability of the apparatus is astonishing. With 21 seats against 14 with the DC-2, the operating costs are only 10 % higher. The transport of passengers can become profitable.


Newark, January 14 1936

Howard Hugues added a new trophy to its table of hunting. After having removed there is a few months the record of the world speed, it has just established that of the transcontinental flight fastest. It took off of Burbank, in California, with the orders of a plane Northtrop Gamma rented with the aviatrice Jacqueline Cochran. The apparatus was modified by its care. It was driven it by a new Wright engine out of star developing 1000 CH and actuating a propeller with three blades. Of west in is, it traversed without stopover all the American territory. After 9 a.m. 36 minutes 10 seconds of flight, it lands in Newark, in the New Jersey. It held the mean velocity of 417 km/h during this flight. It beat once again the record speed established by Rosco Turner, which enables to foresee the transcontinental flights of line.


Villacoublay, June 23 1936

Décidément, nothing stops the French aviatrice Maryse Hilsz. Hardly handing-over of its accident, which has occurred last May, it again tries to be exceeded on board a biplane Potez 50 been driven by a gnome engine & the Rhone of 900 CH. This time, it beats the female record of altitude while climbing up to 14 309 m; what leaves it to 266 m of the world record of Soviet Kokinadi. It is a beautiful performance, because the flight at great altitude is very different from that carried out in low layer.


Paris, August 1 1936

Louis Blériot dies in the distress. Aviation had given him glory and fortune. It, which mowed so many young lives, let die in its bed as if he were a man like the others. Engineer of an immense talent and aviator with the multiple exploits, it had been one of the first to be impassioned for the technique of the flight which contributed to improve. Its temerity was such as it had been worth the nickname of the man to him who always fell. These last years, of the financial problems had constrained it to close its workshops and it was almost without resources when it was carried by a heart attack.


New York, May 6 1937

It is 19. 30 when the airship Hindenburg coming from Berlin arrives at its mast of mooring at the ground of Lakehurst, close to New York. Suddenly, it ignites. There are 36 victims including 13 passengers. There was 97 people on board. In New York, one speaks about accident, but, in certain mediums of Reich, one holds only the assumption of sabotage. There is not a doubt that this catastrophe, occurred in the United States, is likely to put an end to the transport of passengers per airship. Last year, more than 3500 people crossed the Atlantic aboard German airships without the least accident being deplored. The line was divided between the Graf zeppelin and the Hindenburg. Since 1928, the Graf zeppelin traversed 1 350 000 km and transported 13 000 people under conditions of comfort which one does not meet on the aircraft.


Peaceful, July 2 1937

last flight of Amelia Earhart. She said: "We travel northern and southern", and then more nothing. A terrible silence which inserted Amelia in the legend. The aviatrice had left on board Lockheed Electra 10th, in company of the navigator Fred Noonan, July 1. All had been avoided with meticulousness, except perhaps the radio. Amelia had had to leave in Miami a long antenna, however necessary during the long crossing of the Pacific. Nevertheless, all occurs for best to Puerto Rico, then with Natal, the starting point for the transatlantic stage. The aviatrice is impressed by the landscapes which it flies over: Dakar, Arabia, then Karachi, Calcutta and Rangoon. After having passed by Singapore and Bandung, the crew gains Australia and New Guinea. There remains to them still 11 000 km to be covered. Up to now, the pilot is conquered by his apparatus. They must be posed in Howland, a very small point in the Pacific which they will never join. The messages of Amelia are scrambled by parasites. During hours, apparatuses and ships try to find the crew. They disappeared forever in the sky, but not in the memories.


France, November 19 1937

One can be a writer, philosophical, pilot and also scientist. Antoine de Saint-Exupéry is an authentic inventor and it proves by depositing in one month two patents at the national institute of the patent rights. After its device for landing of plane, published on March 11, 1936, here its "new methods for the landing of the planes without visibility, with device and apparatus of realization". This method makes it possible to permanently know the exact distance compared to the ground flown over. Second patent, quite as revolutionary, the goniograph: it acts of an apparatus which allows geometrical layouts with precise measurement of the angles. Untiring worker, it is able to deposit another patent: a system repeater of readers of detecting instruments or measurement. Saint-Exupéry did not finish astonishing.


New York, July 14 1938

If Jules Verne could dream to make the turn of the world in 80 days, Howard Hugues achieved this exploit in three days. An extraordinary adventure that this impassioned speed and four members of crew carried out in the long term. The billionaire had provided Lockheed Model 14 Electra with the most modern equipment communication navigation. He had put in the assistances of the plane 40 kg of table tennis ball, so that he floats in the event of ditching. The odd Hugues does not make the things with half: he had installed in New York a center of meteorology which received and transmitted to Lockheed the information come from the places by which he passed, Europe, the Pacific and the West coast of the United States. But Hugues is also a businessman advised: its arrival coincided with the world fair of New York. It had baptized besides its apparatus < I > New York World' S Fair. As much to say that it did not expect to be alone on the track of Floyd Bennett Field. 25 000 people came to acclaim, as it should be, this record speed for a turn of the world. In three days 19 hours and 24 minutes, Hugues made his entry in the history.


Poland, September 1 1939

It is only this afternoon that Luftwaffe could launch massive raids on Poland. A thick fog had prevented the exits of the morning. 30 massive attacks were launched on strategic objectives, including 8 by 219 Stuka. Covered by with Bf 109, the observation aircrafts Hs 126 initially located the enemy concentrations. Prevented by radio, Ju 87 intervened. All howling sirens, the planes have piqué on their targets, released their bombs and mitraillé the troops on the ground. In many places, the violence of the shock was such as the Polish soldiers did not highest offerer resistance vis-a-vis to Panzer.


the United States, May 13 1940

to rise in the air with the vertical, to float on a precise point then to go down again to be posed with the desired site: a dream which up to now could not have been carried out in a convincing way. The progress of the techniques made it possible Igor Sikorsky to imagine a new helicopter, the VS-300. For the first time, its funny of small machine held in the air more than 15 minutes, delivered cords which maintained it to avoid the yaws.


London, August 15 1940

the plan of invasion of Great Britain by Hitler depends on the capacity of Luftwaffe to control the sky of the English Channel and the East coast of England. The Germans launched today their greater offensive against the RAF, with a series of raids on the grounds and the radar tracking stations of the country. They attack overall, of Scotland at the coast of Kent and Sussex, to oblige the RAF to fight on a very wide face 10. Goering is sure that they is the crews more aguerris - they did not undergo any defeat to date will not make that a mouthful of the hundreds of English hunters which will cross their road. The tactics of the German staff are to bombard the grounds of Fighter Command while Messerschmitt Bf 109 abbateront Spitfire and Hurricane of the RAF. Whereas grounds as Manston underwent a terrible ramming, causing heavy losses, Luftwaffe was attacked by emerged planes of other bases, with such a bravery that the English countryside is strewn with remains of German planes. The good use of the radar, a tactical center managed good, the quality of the men and apparatuses of the RAF transformed the dream of Goering into bloody nightmare.


Cranwell, May 15 1941

Frank Whittle won its bet. Its engine propelled a plane during 17 minutes. Since 1936, it had succeeded, in spite of enormous financial difficulties, founded Power Jets Ltd., intended to develop a reaction engine which it itself had carried out: Gyrone. In 1937, in Ladywood, the machine is ready to function: the compressor goes up up to 8000 tr/min. The witnesses still remember panic in front of the weapon which seems ready to explode. Finally, the tests are satisfactory and the ministry for the Air requires of Whittle to equip a plane with Gyrone. Gloster becomes thus the first British jet. It took off of Cranwell with, to the orders, Gerry Sayer, which launched the engines up to 16 000 tr/min. Frank Whittle saw its four years of research finally crowned with success.


Hawaii, December 7 1941

"air Raids on Pearl Harbor. It is not a exercise." It is 7. 58 of the morning in Hawaii. While the rear-admiral Bellinger, of the tower of control of Ford Island, lance its message, the Japanese bombers crush under the bombs the American fleet of the Pacific. The planes of the commander Mitsuo Fuchida had been detected indeed by the radar of Opana, but the center of control had confused them with of Flying Fortress until one waited this morning. Also, when at 7 a.m. the 49 183 apparatuses of the first wave arrive above the roads, the sky is empty. The effect of surprise is total and, before even as the first bombs fall, Fuchida launches the signal "Tora, will tora, tora!" (Tiger, tiger, tiger!) with the admiral Nagumo, the commander of the naval force of attack. At 7 a.m. 56, the Japanese bombers unchain a hot fire on the warships. The Japanese pilots know the plan of the base by heart. While the Zero hunters and the bombers in piqué Aichi D3A1 Val disperse in sections to bombard and mitrailler the aerodromes of Wheeler, Kaneohe, Ewa and Hickham, the planes destroyers Nakajima B5N2 Kate take their course of approach, then go down to be placed in position of shooting by through battleships. In a few minutes, five ships, Oklahoma, Nevada, Arizona, West Virginia and the california, are broken by the torpedes of 800 kg of Kate. Touched to port side, Oklahoma is turned over, absorbing 400 sailors. In the fifteen minutes which follow, Arizona explodes, its machines and the ammunition store was touched. Moored at the head of file, the california will be the last battleship to be reached. Two torpedes penetrate under the footbridge. The crew prevents it from capsizing but cannot prevent that it is inserted slowly in water of the port. At 8 a.m. 40 one second wave of 86 Valley, 54 Kate and 36 Zero hunters, approaches Oahu by the east. Some rare Curtiss P-40 take off of the track of Wheeler. They will destroy 11 enemy planes. The lieutenant commander Shimazaki, which directs the action, travels by for target the Nevada battleship, which finally succeeded in setting sail under the acclamations of the crew of Oklahoma. At 10 a.m. all is finished: the American naval power is reduced for long month. One will count 2403 dead and 1178 wounded American side; 18 ships are sunk or seriously damaged, including eight battleships. Aviation lost 347 apparatuses. The Japanese record as for them only ridiculous losses: 29 planes and five pocket submarines.


Soviet Union, January 21 1942

Kuznetsov is a lieutenant, he does not have which 23 years. It took off for a mission in Shtourmovik and it has just returned in Messerschmitt Bf 109! Whereas a keen combat opposed its team-members to the German hunters, it saw the majority of its friends falling in flames. Shocks shake its plane, a thick smoke fills the cockpit, it is touched, the plane burns. It has just time to be posed and flee to hide in the coppices to avoid the explosion. A noise of engine above him. Messerschmitt lands in its turn with a few tens of meters. Arm with the fist, the German pilot moves towards the carcass on fire of Shtourmovik under the médusé eye of the young lieutenant. Whereas that which cut down it continues its inspection, it runs, change in Messerschmitt and flies away towards its base.


the United States, May 12 1944

New record of transcontinental crossing. Started from Inglewood, to California, a hunter Mustang P-51 was posed on the ground of Guardia after a six hours crossing 31 minutes and 30 seconds. Its pilot, colonel Clair Peterson, of Army Air Force, thus improves 49 minutes the record speed established in the single-engined aircraft on a transcontinental flight, which was held by Howard Hugues. Seven minutes after Peterson is also posed Mustang P-51 de Jack casing left him Inglewood, but one minute later. These hunters are been driven by a Merlin engine of 1680 CH built under licence in the United States by Packard. Moreover, at the time of the flight, the weight of these apparatuses equalized that of a plane which leaves to the combat.


Nagasaki, August 9 1945

the raid which have just carried out two B-29 will remain marked in the history of humanity. 6 August, controlled by colonel Paul Tibbets, B-29 baptized Enola Gay of the 97e To bend Group, takes off of the Tinian island, in Mariannes. Time is perfect. They are 12 members of crew, photographed before the departure. Two other B-29 form part of the voyage. The first will film the explosion, the second will make scientific statements. On board Enola Gay there is not that a bomb but it is a superbombe: Little Boy. It was armed during the vol. At 8 a.m. 15 minutes and 17 seconds, standard time, the bomber, to 9600 m of altitude above Hiroshima, the terrible machine releases. It transfers immediately on the right to deviate. After the explosion, the assessment is dramatic: 80 000 died and a destruction of the city to 60 %. In the world, amazement makes place with consternation. Japan does not seem therefore ready to yield. August 9, it is with the turn of B-29 Bock' S Car to make its entry in the history. Controlled by major Sweeney, the similar door the second bomb: Conceited person Man. The too thick clouds save the town of Kokura. Nagasaki is destroyed à.70.% and one raises 40 000 dead of the debris.


Toussus-the-Noble, June 6 1946

experimental Flight today for the Belphégor, Johnny Burtin, the test pilot of the national company of aeronautical engineerings of the Center, old Farman factories, took off this morning of Toussus-the-Noble. The NC 3021 is a single-engined aircraft of 10 000 kg. Its enormous four-bladed propeller is pulled by an engine Daimler-Benz dB 610, of a power of 3000 CH. The apparatus was designed to be used as laboratory of exploration of stratosphere. It can reach an altitude of 12 800 m and is equipped with a cabin pressurized for five people. It is planned for a crew of three members accompanied by two engineers of research. The Belphégor has the role of analyzing the problems arising from altitude: pressurization, its variations as well as the sealing of the cabin. It must also study the problems arising from the engine supply to explosion with very high altitudes.


Muroc Dry Lake, December 9 1946

Bell XS-1 is the rocket of research of the USAAF. Released of B-29, it achieved successfully a second autonomous flight motorized above the base of test of California. The XS-1 is built by Bell: the project is financed by the USAAF and of government through the National Advisory Commitee for Aeronautic (NACA). Conceived to fly at very high altitude, the XS-1 was to carry out the tests speed which will make it possible to cross the wall of the sound. According to the temperature and atmospheric pressure, the speed of sound, Mach 1, is of approximately 1050 km/h. The first test was carried out on January 19. Since, surfaces of the wings and elevator were reduced. Bell XS-1 should soon be able to carry out the historical flight.


Muroc Dry Lake, August 25 1947

New record speed in high altitude at the base of the US Air Force in California. Major Marion Carl, of the body of the navy, reached Mach 0,99 (1047,356 km/h) on board D-558 Skystreak, called the Crimson Test Tube because of his scarlet fuselage.


Muroc Dry Lake, October 14 1947

the wall of the sound did not stop it. Charles Yaeger made a success of what one believed dangerous, even impossible. At 10 a.m. 30, by producing a bang as envisaged, X-1 crossed the mysterious barrier of a territory up to that point inviolate. Remarkable exploit which one owes with the apparatus as with the man. At 10 a.m., Yaeger settles with the orders of Bell X-1 baptized, in homage to his wife, Glamorous Glennis. The sky of the desert, beautiful but icy, announces a beautiful day. All is perfect, except the two coasts that Chuck broke this night at the time of a clandestine flight! But no one does not know it. Released carefully to 6000 m by its carrier aircraft B-29, X-1, propelled by two rockets, reached the attitude of test of 12 000 m. The last rocket ignites. A few seconds later, without another indication that that which its dial gives him, Yaeger understands that it enters the legend: it switches stopped at Mach 1,06 (1127 km/h)! There was this time neither shock nor modification of the behavior of the orders. X-1 crossed then to exceed the shock wave created by the compression of molecular of air at this speed. The world of the supersonic flights opens with humanity.


the United States, January 29 1948

Before the war, Theodore Hall, engineer at Consolidated Vultee (Convair), thought already of the flying car. Since 1945, it develops its idea. It then draws a car with two seats, been driven by a Crosley engine of 26 CH and provided with detachable. Then a new model been driven by a Franklin engine of 90 CH appears. Completed in June 1946, the flying car achieves a first trial flight on July 12. After which model 118 comes, more sophisticated. Its first flight, last 15 November, badly misses finishing. With fuel end, the apparatus was posed in catastrophe, the car was destroyed and one of the pilots wounded. The last model, that Hall made fly today, is Convair 118. The engine is even more powerful. It chose Lycoming which actuates a tractive three-bladed propeller Sensenich.


Strong Worth, 2 Mars 1949

B-50 "Lucky Lady" makes the turn of the world without stopover. It had left from here February 26 and has just returned after having achieved the turn of the world without being posed. Equipped with the system of in-flight refueling, it took again the fuel above the Azores, the Philippines and around Hawaii. It was each time a KB-29 which was with go with the fuel necessary to rejoin the following stage. It traversed 37 189 km in 94 hours and a minute. To supplement the exercise, it released with half of the way of the factitious bombs, their tonnage was not communicated.



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