Chronicle Aviation > 1890 - 1910

Chronicles

Translated by BabelFish

< 1930 - 1950
1910 - 1930 >

France, October 9 1890

Clement Ader exulte! This afternoon, in the park of the castle of Armainsvilliers, the French scientist flew to the orders of a machine of his design, Eole. It is in the greatest secrecy that Ader and its assistants had come to settle in the property of Mrs. Isaac Péreire, the widow of the famous banker. As of August, tests took place, and, today, except for Mrs. Péreire, one of his/her friends and of its family, there was in the enclosure of the castle only Clément Ader and its two foremen, Eloi Vallier and Espinosa. A surface of 200 meters length operation on 25 broad, beaten with the roller and entirely released from any obstacle, had been prepared. In the afternoon, "the plane", thus the engineer calls Eole, is brought on the track. There is no wind, which wishes Ader, bus, apart from the engine controls and of that which makes it possible to move back or advance the wings, Eole does not have rudder. A little before four hours, one starts the engine. It is with vapor, two cylinders and of an exceptional quality. Of a power of 20 CH, the driving unit, boiler and condenser included/understood, weighs less than 3 kg per horse, never considering! To be certain to take off, Ader reduced to the maximum Eole, by removing two of the tanks. The engine makes turn a horizontal tree which actuates the propeller whose four blades are in split bamboo. Astonishing prowess, the wings are articulated and folding. Learnedly studied, their profile in hollow distinguish them from the airplanes of the time. At four hours four minutes, Ader makes roll Eole on the improvised track, then, having increased the speed of the engine, it is smelled suddenly raised in the air. At the same time, the assistants of Ader placed halfway on the track, see the wheels being detached from the ground and Eole to traverse around fifty of meters by shaving the track to 20 cm before improving the ground. It is 16h06. Ader leaves the machine obviously moved. Without losing its cold blood, and before writing an official report, it orders with all to maintain the secrecy and asks its foremen to mark the exact place where they saw the wheels Eole to leave it ground.


France, October 12 1890

Clement Ader written to his friend Felix Nadar "that it carried out its first flight with its apparatus of final studies, Eole".


Cairo, November 20 1890

Louis Mouillard answers the American scientist of French extraction Octave Chanute. It authorizes it to present its theories "at these bold people of the United States".


Grosskreuz, 1891

Lilienthal gives wings to the Man: Otto Lilienthal, its Gustave brother and their associate Hugo Eulitz build a sailplane which they try out close to Berlin: they manage to plane in the air on more than 50 m.


the United States, 1891

the astronomer Samuel Pierpont Langley, who directs Smithsonian Institution, publishes in Washington a work entitled Experiments in Aerodynamics, a study on the reactions of the air on the plans moving.


France, September 1891

Ader obtained the authorization of the army to use the ground of Satory for its tests. Eole undergoes there a damage at the time of its second flight.


the United States, October 1891

In Railroad and Engineering Newspaper of Chicago, Octave Chanute starts to publish a series of articles on aeronautics.


France, February 3 1892

Clement Ader signs with the Minister for the War, Charles de Freycinet, a convention under the terms of which it is committed building an aircraft able to fly to several hundred meters height. To him a subsidy of 200 000 Franks is granted.


the United States, August 2 1892

Chanute Octave receives from Villeneuve, the president of the French Company of aerial navigation, an unfavourable report on the experiments of Ader.


the United States, September 24 1892

For the account of Louis Mouillard, Octave Chanute deposits an patent application of sailplane-sailing ship.


the United States, May 1 1893

A the occasion of the World Fair of Chicago, Chanute chairs the international conference of air Locomotion.


the United States, Be 1893

Wright sell bicycles. They repair, manufacture and sell bicycles, without losing sight of the fact the dream which agitates them since childhood: to build one day an airplane and to fly.


the United States, 1894

Chanute Octave remakes the history. The time of a book, the engineer of the railroads Octave Chanute was made historian and theorist of aviation.


Paris, July 24 1894

the Minister for the War grant a subsidy of 250 000 F to build a Plane III which will be twin-engine.


Great Britain, July 31 1894

In its property of Baldwyn' S Park in Kent, to sir Hiram Maxim carried out captive tests on a machine heavier than the air, propelled to the vapor. They is true giants of the airs which the inventor of the machine-gun built. Of a scale of 31 m, the machine of Hiram Maxim, comprises an octagonal surface, prolonged by side wings. A boiler supplies two compound engines of 180 CH which actuate two large propellers 5,45 meters in diameter. The apparatus weighs on the whole nearly 3500 kg. After several unfruitful attempts, the airplane, installed on double a 550 m length shoed track, the first to guide it, the second to prevent it from taking off, carried out a short jump of 60 cm before breaking in its rails.


Paris, December 28 1895

Armand Déperdussin become "barker" for projections of the Lumière brothers.


the United States, May 6 1896

a "Aerodrome" above Potomac: one minute and thirty-five seconds above Potomac! The Aerodrome of Samuel Pierpont Langley held his promises, but it is yet only one model with the quarter which has just flown. For the occasion, the secretary of Smithsonian Institution invited Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone which is also impassioned of aviation. The Aerodrome n°5 is a small steel airplane. It is a catapult, installed on one of banks of Potomac, which propelled in the airs the n°5. This one rose until a height of 100 feet.


Berlin, August 10 1896

the sailplane kill Otto Lilienthal.


the United States, September 12 1896

Chanute Octave makes fly of the Americans. "It is necessary to fly and fall. To fly and fall until we can steal without falling." At sixty-four years, the American scientist Octave Chanute feels well too old to take with the letter this maxim of Lilienthal. Also you it has engaged three young people to test its sailplanes. Augustus Herring, William Avery and the Russian Paul Boutousov thus settled with their new employer with Milleur Station in Indiana.


France, June 1897

Victor Tatin and Charles Richet make steal in Carqueiranne an airplane not assembled, mû by the vapor. The machine, which weighs 33kg, makes a flight of 140 m in straight line.


Eynsford, June 19 1897

It is at Otto Lilienthal that Percy Sinclair contracted the virus of the sailplane. This Scot of Glasgow, according to the councils of the German inventor designed an original sailplane: Hawk (falcon). The apparatus has two wheels of bicycle which form landing gear. The take-off is carried out by means of a winch actuated by assistances and sometimes by horses. Today, in Eynsford in Kent, Pilcher thanks to this system gained a sufficient height to carry out a slip of more than 200 m. An exploit which confirms its intuition: the more one gains height, the more the ascending currents carry the sailplane.


Cairo, September 20 1897

Paralysed, Louis Mouillard dies in misery. It leaves with the state notes a last work, the flight without beats.


France, October 14 1897

Ader fails in front of the Mensier General: the test of its new plane III turned to the catastrophe.


France, October 21 1897

the Mensier General writes the official report of the tests of Plane III. No moment, it specifies if the aircraft really flew.


Germany, November 3 1897

the widow of Austrian engineer Schwartz made tried out successfully in Tempelhof an airship out of aluminium, propelled by a Daimler engine of 12 CH.


France, 31 Mars 1898

the army break with Clément Ader.


Paris, September 3 1898

Clement Ader deposit the patent of an automobile engine of a completely new type: it acts of a two cylinder motor out of V.


Paris, September 18 1898

Alberto Santos-Dumont is driven its airship n°1 by an engine with oil with Dion and Bouton of 1,75 CH. It modifies it by adding out of tandem another cylinder.


Paris, October 7 1898

the Aero club of France is created.


the United States, October 11 1898

In Michigan, in Saint Joseph, Augustus Hering, in the presence of Chanute Octave, cannot make take off a biplane to be driven by a compressed-air engine of 3 CH.


Dayton, June 2 1899

Wilbur Wright receives from Smithsonian Institution Progress in Flying Machines of Chanute and, of the extracts of the Empire of the air of Louis Mouillard.


Dayton, July 27 1899

the Wright brothers completed a biplane sailplane which they will test by using it like a kite.


Stanford Hall, October 2 1899

the English pioneer Percy Pilcher dies following a fall of 9 m made day before yesterday in sailplane.


Germany, 6 Mars 1900

Death of Gottlieb Daimler, the light originator di driving with petroleum gas.


Paris, April 14 1900

Opening of the World Fair. Plane III of Clement Ader is exposed there.


Paris, May 1900

having discovered the Plane of Ader to the Exposure, Gabriel Voisin gives up its studies of architecture. It draws a project of flying machine, inspired of the cellular kites of Hargrave.


the United States, May 17 1900

Chanute Octave advises in Wilbur Wright to get the works of Louis Mouillard, in response to a request for documentation.


Lyon, June 29 1900

Andree Boyer de Fonscolombe puts at the world Antoine, wire of the Viscount Jean de Saint-Exupéry.


Germany, July 2 1900

the first rigid airship designed by Ferdinand von zeppelin took the air today. On board, with the inventor, were the baron von Bassus and the engineer of the firm, Ludwig Dürr. After 18 minutes of rise to the top of the Lake of Constancy, an incident of engine and a damage with the rudder obliged the airship to be posed prudently on water.


the United States, September 6 1900

Wilbur Wright leaves Dayton for Kitty Hawk, in North Carolina. The year spent, the two brothers had asked for a help the American National office of meteorology in order to choose a site for their tests.


Paris, September 19 1900

At the time of a reception of the international Congress of aeronautics of the Aero club, Henry Deutsch of Meurthe declares: "Let us hope... that the air cars will manage to exceed of speed all the terrestrial cars."


Paris, September 22 1900

A edge of its airship n°4, Santos-Dumont flies over the banquet of the 22000 mayors of France which is held with Tileries.


Russia, September 30 1900

the count of Vaulx lands in balloon in Brest Konyaski. Coming from France, it achieved only this voyage.


Korostychev, October 9 1900

From Paris in Kiev in balloon: left Paris on board balloon the Centaur, the count of Vaulx and his companion of navigation, the count de Castillon de Saint-Victor, were posed today in Russia, in Korostychev, not far from Kiev. The tour lasted 35. 45 and one new record was established: the aeronauts traversed 1925 km without touching ground.


North Carolina, October 31 1900

Wilbur and Orville Wright advance while groping but they seem quite close to the success. They built a biplane sailplane of 5 m scale and 15 m² of airfoil, equipped with before elevator. Installed on the dunes of the beaches of Kitty Hawk, a place where the winds are constant, they accomplished flights this month. Sometimes, they remained in the air nearly 2 minutes. They also used their sailplane as kite. The system of control of the machine is astute: a set of cables makes it possible to raise the end of a wing while lowering the other.


Nice, November 1900

Ferdinand Ferber is affected with the command of the 17eme alpine battery. As of its arrival, it makes build a 5 m height platform, intended for the experimentation of its sailplanes.


Chicago, September 18 1901

Wilbur Wright exposes its tests of glidings in front of the Western Company of the engineers, with photographs taken at the time of the second stay with Kitty Hawk. It considers the possibility of the motorized flight.


the United States, January 1902

the spark-ignition engine ordered by Samuel Langley for his Aerodrome is ready. The engine delivered by Stephen Balzer was modified by Charles Manly. It is tested successfully during 10 hours with the test bench. With 5 star cylinders cooled by water, it weighs only 94 kg for 52 CH.


North Carolina, October 28 1902

the Wright brothers learned how to overcome the winds! After a third season on the sorry beaches of Kitty Hawk, they set out again this morning, sure that they had become Masters in art to control their sailplanes of wood, cables and fabric. They had become familiar of the inhabitants, in particular of the postmaster, daN Tate, which was to them of an invaluable help at the time of the delicate launching of the sailplanes in winds of 43 km/h. However, they knew to remain quiet men, even austere, devoted to their father, preacher, never not taking the air Sunday, and bearing, even in flight, hard collar and tie. Courage and the determination are the keys of their success. But it is based at the beginning over months of work scientific in their workshop of Dayton, in Ohio, where they built an experimental blower. Attaching model to a small balance placed in a flow of air, they calculated the produced upward force, and thus the shape of the most adapted aerofoil.


Caroline of North, December 17 1903

the historical take-off of Orville Wright on "Flyer I": With 10h30 this morning, a dream as old as humanity was concretized: the man went Master of the airs. The Wright brothers indeed have just achieved what they ambitionnaient: first stabilized flight of a motorized machine heavier than the air. As of this evening, they telegraphed the fantastic news with their father, in Dayton, in Ohio: "Thursday morning, made a success of four flights thanks to winds of 40 km/h." Their apparatus that they call from now on Flyer I, initially controlled by Orville, took off of a wood rail 12 m length close to their camping of Kitty Hawk. It remained in the air during 12 seconds and traversed 36,5 m in the medium of changes of wind. Wilbur carried out at midday the fourth and last flight, which lasted 59 S. It traversed 260 m before falling on the ground. But a strong gust obliged it with all to stop. There were 5 witnesses, all the men of the area, who were not especially impressed since they had seen Wright, during years spent, to accomplish several other longer flights. The aviators were delighted by their success, persuaded which they found the key to build a practical apparatus of use. They are four years of hard today and patient labour which bore their fruits, the scientific approach which they had having enabled them to succeed where so many others had failed. During their many tests, they never took useless risks, always privileging the comprehension of the physical phenomenon before the test, and supporting the whole of their work by a solid knowledge of the aerodynamic phenomena. One year ago, after an autumn rich in success, Wilbur and Orville had spent the winter in their workshop of Dayton to work on an engine and propellers intended to propel the sailplane. At the beginning of the experimental phase with Kitty Hawk, three months ago, a series of delays due primarily to the weakness of the transmission chain had worried them. They have then fears to be beaten, in their conquest of the air, by Samuel Langley. But the failure of the second launching of the Aerodrome gave again a new hope to them. The winter was there, the boys had promised to their father to be at the house for Christmas, but they were firmly decided to fly. December 14, with the first attempt, Flyer I left the track but fell down immediately on the ground: Wilbur was not accustomed to the orders. Yesterday finally, repairs were completed, but the wind was too weak. This morning, the ideal conditions were practically met and, in the winds of the Atlantic, the Wright brothers wrote a fantastic page in the history of aviation.


Huffman Meadow, September 15 1904

For now eight days, the Wright brothers have taken again their tests of Flyer II with a catapult equipping the base, from now on named Simms Station. Launched using a counterweight of 270 kg, Wilbur succeeded in carrying out today a turn controlled in flight. The Wright brothers can now consider the takeoff of their airplane without more having to worry about the force of the wind.


Simms Station, September 20 1904

Wilbur Wright carries out the first flight in closed loop of an airplane, on board Flyer II. It traverses 1240 m into 1 min 36 S, in the presence of several witnesses, of which Amos Root, owner of a local newspaper.


the United States, January 1 1905

"Imagine an engine which left its rails and which climbs in the airs right on you... an engine which would not have any more white wheels... but wings in the place." Here how, of its eye of spectator, Amos Root describes the flight of Flyer, the apparatus of the Wright brothers, in a magazine of small diffusion appeared this month, Remarques on the apiculture. Since December 1903, where a series of articles based on hearsays had told in an inaccurate way the historical adventure of their first flight, the American press had only very little reported progress of Wright. Indeed, they put much time to publish their work, thinking that it was to better keep secret the prototypes that they had conceived during these years of hard labour.


Washington, January 24 1905

the Defence Department declines the offer of the Wright brothers. One week ago, they proposed with the government to sell one of their machine with the army. Their note with the congress specified that the role of the airplane "would be to carry out recognitions and to carry messages".


Paris, July 18 1905

That emotions on the Seine between Sevres and Billancourt! Gabriel Voisin prepares to test two sailplanes with floats which it built, pertaining to Archdeacon and Blériot. These apparatuses were towed by the motorboat Antoinette La Rapière. The weather is splendid and the first flight, on the Archdeacon sailplane, proceeds perfectly: gone up to 4 or 5 meters in height, the machine stole 300 meters and was posed as soon as the pilot of the boat to cut gases. The second test, on the Blériot hydroplane, is less happy. The boat makes a bad departure: the cable of towing stiffens too quickly and causes the yaw transversalle sailplane. The apparatus leaves water and is turned over on the left wing, imprisoning Gabriel Voisin under the net to the "piano wires". It is of accuracy that Decarme, one of its workmen, withdraws it water. Louis Blériot, who attends the scene, is disappointed: he is satisfied to admit that the wings of the apparatus are too hollow. It is the second forced bath of Neighbor in the Seine. First place had on June 8 close to Billancourt, on a sailplane completed in the workshops of Edouard Surcouf. After a first successful flight of 17 meters, the sailplane had to him also piqué in water at the time of the second test.


Dayton, October 5 1905

Today, Wilbur Wright made a success of a flight of a little more than 38 min. On Flyer III, the very last engine apparatus which it developed with his Orville brother, it traversed 38,96 km above their improvised ground of tests with Huffman Prairie. It is thus the first flight of more than one half an hour of the Wright brothers. It shows that Flyer III is the first of their engine apparatuses which are successful perfectly. Flyer III is conceived according to models' précedents but with a scale more developed slightly: 12,34 m. The remarkable engine of 15 CH used the last year was preserved, but of new propellers were gone up. The pilot directs the apparatus like before, lengthened on the level of the wings. Wright began their tests as from June, carrying out since many flights and being exerted with complete and connected turns. They are filled with enthusiasm by the way in which the apparatus is operated. Since the beginning of the year, they try to interest the military authorities of the United States and England in the performances of their machine to make a tool of recognition of it. That did not give a result until now, but the success of the last model could encourage them to renew their steps.


Paris, July 29 1906

the friends of Santos-Dumont are not at the end of their surprises! In a workshop of Neuilly, they attended a spectacle as curious as unexpected. Having decided to devote itself to heaviest than the air, the Brazilian aviator built, with the assistance of the brothers Voisin, a strange airplane. Of a scale of 10,05 m for length a 12,20 m and been driven by an engine Antoinette of 24 CH, the apparatus actuates a propeller located at the back. The pilot, upright, is held with the back, in front of the engine and the propeller. At this point in time the object of such an amount of astonishment intervenes: it is called Kuigno and it is an ass! It is harnessed with the machine to provide traction. At the step, the ass starts to draw as much as it can it. Waste of time and effort. The poor animal is quite unable to take speed to actuate the apparatus. Furious, the inventor swore himself not to deal never again with the animal gente...


Paris, November 12 1906

Santos-Dumont did not waste time. October 23, it carried out already an exploit while stealing 60 m with a height from 2 to 3 m. It will try to still better do. Today, a thousand of people, among whom president Archdeacon and of the Members of the Commission of control of the Aero club of France, are in Bagatelle to attend the new departure of the Brazilian one. This one will try to steal 100m. With the assistance of Gabriel Voisin, Santos-Dumont modified its machine, the airplane 14 bis. It is 16h30, the daring pilot starts the engine. The 14 bis rolls 300 m on grass then rises: it reaches 15 m of altitude. Not to lose the control of its machine, Santos-Dumont does not try to transfer, it atterit right in front of him, concerning gently the ground. It is carried in triumph by the public. The Commission meets on the spot. It evaluates the duration of the flight with 21s and the distance to 220 m.


Paris, February 2 1907

the Delagrange sculptor, first customer of the Neighbor: he came to order an airplane.


New York, May 18 1907

Wilbur Wright leaves for Europe. It will continue there the discussions of the terms of sale of Flyer III.


France, October 10 1907

Today, in Buc, the first REP finally took off from... 6 Mr. Since April, Robert Esnault-Pelterie does not cease improving this plane, which it baptized of his initial. The weak performance of the flight does not decrease its satisfaction of the correct operation of the control device which it developed. Since the beginning of its research, Esnault-Pelterie seeks to carry out a single control unit. On its plane, a vertical lever, a such handle with brush, is placed in front of the pilot. It is assembled on Cardan joint. In its longitudinal displacements, it acts on the elevator and longitudinal stability. In its transverse displacements, it acts on the warping of the wings. If the apparatus has suddenly pricked of the nose, the pilot draws this lever behind to rectify the plane; if it bucks, it pushes it ahead. To order the rudder, a swing bar actuated by the feet makes it possible to control the amplitude of the turns. It is a very new technique of piloting. The pilot has a free hand to adjust the engine. Already, the other manufacturers envy this revolutionary system.


Lisieux, November 13 1907

the helicopter of Horned: to transform the propellers into wings! It is the daring bet of a Norman mechanic, Paul Cornu, of Lisieux. It was harnessed with the manufacture of a helicopter and seems to have succeeded in making take off its machine.


Paris, November 16 1907

the "Young lady n°19" of Santos-Dumont flies. It weighs only 106 kg, weight of the pilot included/understood. The Demoiselle accomplished a stable and easy flight of 200 m, with the modest altitude of 6 m. The dream of Brazilian continues.


Paris, December 18 1907

Whereas the majority of the pilots adopted the formula of the biplane, Louis Blériot reaffirms his will to fly on monoplane, that it judges more aerodynamic. It makes take off the monoplane after one year of eagerness.


Issy-les-Moulineaux, January 13 1908

In the presence of rare witnesses, Henri Farman has just achieved the first flight of 1 km in closed loop of the history before the Commission of the Aero club.


Mans, August 8 1908

Wilbur Wright proves its superiority. It has just made conceal the French who doubted that the Wright brothers really carried out the flights which they claim to have accomplished in the United States. In the presence of many French pioneers of aviation, joined together with the racecourse of Hunaudières, close to Mans, it succeeded in flying in loop during one minute and forty-five seconds.


Issy-les-Moulineaux, September 6 1908

Leon Delagrange holds the air 29 minutes 53 seconds, with 6m height at a distance of 24,40 km.


New York, September 15 1908

Farman invents to me word aileron. It thus baptizes the shutters in end of wing.


Rheims, October 30 1908

new Spectacle out of Champagne! A machine pétaradante flies over the countryside. On his board, Henri Farman connects Bouy, close to Mourmelon, in Rheims, carrying out the first flight of city to city of the history. He A traverses 27 km into 20 min.


France, July 24 1909

They is nothing any more but three with being in track: Charles of Lambert, Hubert Latham and Louis Blériot. All hope to gain the 25000 Franks-or offered by the Daily Mail to the first aviator who will cross the English Channel. Of the three pilots, it is Louis Blériot who seems most badly placed to gain l"épreuve. In a few years, Blériot spent the dowry of his wife and her personal fortune to manufacture planes which are not sold. At the edge of the bankruptcy, with the tenacity of the shipwrecked men who cling to their raft, it conceived, at the beginning of this year, Blériot XI, a superb monoplane. Alexandre Anzani provided him a 3 Cylinder motor in range, which develops 25 CH. Rustic, its cast iron neither is trimmed nor sanded, but it is a reliable machine, although hot oil escapes regularly from the cylinders, adherent at the end of a few times the plane of a viscous layer which plugs the pilot. Blériot then left a type XII. At the same time, it was registered with all the air meetings to reinflate its case. July 3, it is in Douai to try to beat with monoplane XI a record of endurance and distance. It leaves there victorious, but with ankle left atrociously burned by the contact too direct of the muffler. Untiring, the following day, it is with Port-Aviation and, with Blériot XI, gains the price of Archdeacon. But the fate is baited: July 13, while returning from Chevilly, Blériot XI takes the rain and the wings mouthfuls of water must be réentoilées. Lastly, July 18, in Douai where the meeting continues, Blériot allocates the Mahieu price and the price speed. Alas, fire takes in the casing and burns again to him the left foot. But Louis Blériot makes fun about it; in spite of its wound, the 21, it settles with the Terminus hotel in Calais. It decided, it will run with Blériot XI, in spite of the doubtful state of the wings.


France, July 25 1909

Louis Blériot successful the crossing of the English Channel. The storm was calmed yesterday evening and with 23h30, Blériot decided that it would be for this morning. Alfred the White awoke it with 2h10 and it left in car to the farm Oil cake where its faithful mechanics Mamet and Colin beside the plane waited. With 4h10, Blériot made a very short trial flight towards Sangatte and with 4h35, it sinks towards the English Channel. Quickly, opposite the Huts, it flies over the destroyer the Escopette on board of which Mrs. Blériot is. Then, it is alone with the immense sea from where the fog goes up. It has a compass, but it is blocked. It listens to the noises of sound "three legs" which it lubricates. Lastly, a chalky line takes shape at the horizon. That must be Deal, it too is in North. It wants to go to Dover. Under him, a flotilla of ships advances towards the south. They go to Cowes for the visit of the Tsar. He transfers on the left, the port takes shape in front of him with his cliffs. The wind and the movements prevent it from going up. In a hollow, a green spot, it avoids houses, cuts the engine and falls down more than it is not posed on a meadow of North Fall Meadow. It is 5h13. Great Britain is not completely any more an island.



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