Translated by BabelFish
As a tactical apparatus of attack on the ground (IDS) more sophisticated which was produced in Europe, Panavia Tornado compensates for the lack of standardization of the weapons within NATO while transporting on board practically all the known air weapons. It achieves its missions at very high subsonic speeds, protected from detection by a follow-up of automatic ground all-time, and air threats and on the ground by a whole panoply of active and passive systems of self-protection. In accordance with the specifications stated at the end of 1960, the missions of Tornado were as follows: prohibition, operations of neutralization of the airfields, prohibition of the battle fields, operations CASE (brought closer tactical support), recognition, attacks maritime and interception. The specific versions recognition are the ECR of Luftwaffe and the GR1A of the RAF.
the three nations sleeping partners of Tornado are represented near the principal manufacturer, Panavia, by their aircraft industries, in fact British Aerospace, DASA (Germany) and Alenia (Italy), which have actions of 42,5%, 42,5% and 15% respectively in the program. Assembly lines were established in the three countries, the constructions intended for other customers being carried out by the company having taken down the sale contract.
Tornado has modest overall dimensions and is propelled by two engines Turbc Union RB.199 with reheating which are, just like a great part of the system of avionics, the products of an international collaboration. The semi-high wing with continuously variable geometry includes/understands elevons with double slit and nozzles of leading edge on all the span of the wing as well as spoilers/destructeurs of bearing pressure to the suction face. A shutter of Krueger leading edge is in front of each sleeve of wing. The high-lift devices of the wings ensure of good performances the combat and, with the reversers of pushed with "shells", make it possible the apparatus to land on short or even damaged tracks.
the system of navigation and attack of Tornado includes/understands a multimode radar Texas Instruments of follow-up of ground and cartography directed towards the front one, a numerical inertial unit Ferranti (DINS) and an indicator combined radar and card reader, radar system Decca 72 Doppler, a laser rangefinder and a system of search for laser spot GEC Ferranti in a careenage under the nose (only for the apparatuses of the RAF) and an altimeter radio/radar Alenia. The control device of flight includes/understands an electric system of increase in stability to three redundant chains (CSAS) and an autopilot /director of flight (APFD) which, with the system of navigation and attack, allow the apparatus to accomplish flights of high stability at quasi-sonic speeds with 200 FT (61 m) above ground-level by any time. Above the flat grounds (such as that of the south of Iraq during the war of the Gulf of 1991), it is possible to more reduce altitude while trusting only to the altimeter radar. With a wing load minimizing the effect of turbulences at low altitude, the apparatus becomes a kind of platform of weapons stable, fast and relatively comfortable for its crew. System DINS, readjusted by designations radar periodicals, makes it possible to launch an attack of high precision by flying over objective only once, whatever the conditions weather. Tornado is the first combat apparatus designed with an electric control device of flight, but F-16 Fighting Falcon de Lokheed (GD), which had the same control device, entered in service before him. Two guns of 27 mm MKA-Mauser on each side of the lower fuselage, with 180 shells per weapon, are fixed at each side of the lower fuselage. The weapons are transferred onto seven points of fastener: a pylon on the principal axis, two side points of fastener of fuselage and two pylons swivelling under each wing. The pylons intern are equipped with supports for the missiles of self-defence.
Development of Tornado
The design of Tornado, initially as a general-purpose fighter (MRCA), started in 1968. First Tornado, (in the series of the new prototypes and six models of preproduction) flew for the first time on 14 August 1974, followed by the initial standard appliance on July 10, 1979. The first six sections of delivery envisaged by the tripartite agreement included/understood planes 640 IDS, and 57 other apparatuses were added to section 7, just as 4 models of preproduction which had been modernized in accordance with the output norm. The apparatuses of sections 1 to 3 have engines RB.199 Mk 101 of 66 kN; the remainder of the engines Mk 103 of 71,5 kN, although 100 engines Mk 101 RAF were modernized in service. Tornados of the RAF are also provided with structural reserves of drift of 551 liters which are added to the standard capacity of 5 842 liters, and can be transported with the releasable tanks under-surface F.Mk 3 of 2 250 liters. Italy and Germany use only the tanks of 1 000 or 1 500 liters, of which two can be installed under the fuselage of all the alternatives. All the users of IDS have some Tornados with double order fully operational for the transformation and the pilot training. In the RAF, these apparatuses carry the GR.Mk denomination 1(T) (little used). Each standard appliance of sections 6 and 7 is equipped with a numerical data bus MIL-STD 1553B, with equipment of alarm and a modernized system CME active, a valve block of the improved missile and are compatible with missile AGM-88 HARM.
The total number of orders is 164 for GR.Mk 1 standard, and 50 (more one double preproduction modernized) for apparatus as of 14 reconnaissance aircraft lately built GR.Mk 1A, although 16 of the apparatuses belonging to sections 3/5 were equipped with engines Mk 103 and material of recognition under the same denomination.
In 1993-94, two squadrons (numbers 12 and 617, with RAF Lossiemouth) was equipped with anti-ship missiles BAe Sea Eagle and pods of supply in order to replace the Buccaneers old men of the RAF; one gave them the denomination Tornado GR.Mk 1B. Ten apparatuses (of which seven with double orders) were modified and equipped with 15 pods Sargent-Fletcher 28-300 (bought in Marineflieger) during the war of the Gulf.
the apparatuses will know a modernization with semi-life to reach the standard Tornados GR.Mk 4 at the end of the Nineties. They should be provided with a system of navigation to topographic reference GEC Spartan (cancelled at the beginning of the year 1993), of a new VTH Ferranti, a system of modernized control of weapons, of a posting low head color, of equipment of electronic war improved and of a system FLIR (cancelled in 1993). P15 was used as apparatus of development in GR.Mk 4, and accomplished its first flight in its new configuration at the end of 1993. The new aircraft will be equipped with a numerical moving map display indicator, of a system of navigation GPS, a multifunction screen for the pilot, of modernized systems of weapons, a new VTH, a video tape recorder and a system FLIR under the nose. GR.Mk 4 will have capacities TIALD (thermal equipment of aiming and laser designation). This work will be undertaken by BAe between 1996 and the year 2000, and will relate to 80 apparatuses; 62 others could profit from these modernizations between 2000 and 2002. Their service entrance is scheduled for February 1998.
Eleven squadrons were created in 1990 - eight in the structure of the RAF in Germany (II, IX, 14, XV, 16, 17, 20 and 31) and three in the United Kingdom (13, 27 and 617) - from which two were assigned to the recognition; in 1994, however, one agreed on the figure of eight: four in Germany (IX, 14, 17 and 31) and four in the United Kingdom: two squadrons of recognition (II and 13) and two maritime (12 and 617).
In Germany, Luftwaffe acquired 212 Tornado IDS, including two modernized and 55 with double orders; the navy bought 112 of them, including 12 with double orders. The apparatuses of Luftwaffe were assigned to four squadrons of hunters bomber and a squadron of drive. Marineflieger as for them, equipped two maritime attacking units. One of these squadrons (MFG 1) was dismantled and its apparatuses transferred to Luftwaffe in the units from recognition AkG 51 and 52, which were former users of RF-4E. In one year, 40 apparatuses were transferred to a new unit, AG 51, which adopted the badge and the traditions of AkG 52. Founded in January 1994, AG 51 plays a part of recognition in the Baltic identical to that of the MFG 1.
These aircraft will be equipped with pods DB/Aeritalia (nine only) sheltering two Zeiss cameras and a system IRLS Texas Instruments RS-710, will be inherited Marineflieger. This in fact of the apparatuses less powerful than Phantoms than they replaced, but they should be equipped with a new system DASA in 1998 (its development is in hand). Last nines other Tornados (with capacity HARM) of Marineflieger joined the MFG 2.
In collaboration with Italy, Germany is committed in a program MLI (modernization of planes arrived at half of their life). It is a phased programme which will consist in integrating a new computer into the software and with the systems of weapons of which the goal is to add a system of detection FLIR, a system of navigation GPS and improved electronic countermeasures. Italy received 100 Tornado IDS, of which a modernized apparatus and 12 with double orders. Three squadrons were trained in 1983-84 and one fourth converted in 1993. This last (1020 Grupo) will have a reconnaissance/attaque double mission and will use a system Martin-Marietta ATARS (airborne system of tactical recognition) in pod. The 155o Grupo is already equipped with a system of MBB/Aeritalia recognition in pod. The 156o Grupo, equipped with Kormorans is responsible for the maritime attack. The programme of modernization of the Italians is comparable with that of Germany.
the contract of export of IDS related to 48 apparatuses (including 14 with double orders and 6 of recognition) delivered to the squadrons No 7 (to replace the F-5E) and No 66 of the Saoudi Air Force since 1986. Second contract AI Yamamah II of 1993 related to the delivery of 48 additional apparatuses with configuration IDS. With the origin, this contract was to include alternatives IDS and ADV, but at the time of its confirmation, in June 1993, it was decided that it would relate to almost only IDS, with only some models able to carry out reconnaissance missions. The last six apparatuses composing the first section of delivery were already finished and built according to standards' GR.Mk 1A.
Tornados of the RAF, Italy and Saudi Arabia underwent their baptism of fire during the war of the Gulf, in 1991. A FRIEND and six Tornados of the RAF were destroyed, Tornados having been cut down, for the majority, at the time of missions of bombardment of aerodromes by enemy anti-aircraft artillery. It is also during this war that system TIALD (thermal equipment of aiming and laser designation) and the missiles anti-radar ALARM were used for the first time. After the closing of the German assembly line, in January 1992, the United Kingdom remained the only manufacturer in this field. It delivered its last apparatus (F.Mk 3) in 1993. On the whole, 697 interceptors IDS, 35 ECR and 197 ADV had been ordered.
The ADV (Air Varying Defence or version "Air Defense") was built to meet the British need as regards interceptor with long operating range to stop the Soviet bombers in remote approach by using missiles AA guided by radar BAE Sky flash. AI. Mk 24 Foxhunter, Doppler a multifunction radar with impulses with continuation on discontinuous information was manufactured for the new version but knew serious problems and delays. Three prototypes were built. The first flew for the first time on October 27, 1979. It was followed by 18 Tornados F.Mk 2 temporary, without the Foxhunter radar. These apparatuses served only with the OCU (unit of transformation of the flight crew) No 229 with an aim of drive.
current version ADV final with Foxhunter radar accomplished its first flight on November 20, 1985 as F.Mk 3, followed by 144 other apparatuses including 38 with double orders. The OCU No 229 exchanged its E Mk 2 against more recent versions, while the squadron No 29 became the first operational unit to have these versions the ler November 1987. It was followed by the squadrons No 5, 11, 23, 25, 43 and 111, but the squadrons No 23 and 25 were dismantled in accordance with the policy ' Options for Change' (Options for the change) in 1994. Within the framework of the programme of modernization known under the name of ' Training course 1+ ' (Stage 1+) of 1989, Tornados were equipped with a new "handle of combat" with orders HOTAS, improved a Foxhunter radar and a avionics, as well as missiles AIM-9M Sidewinder. An additional modernization of Foxhunter was planned for the middle of the years 1990. The last Tornado F.Mk 3 was delivered on March 24, 1993.
the only foreign customer to receive the ADV was Saudi Arabia which took delivery of 24 of them, including 6 with double orders. The apparatuses of this type delivered to the squadrons No 29 and 34 as from February 1989 were all in service at the beginning of the year 1991. They flew with specimens of the RAF during the war of the Gulf without taking part in the aerial combats. The delays recorded by the Eurofighter program, the age of the F-104S Starfighter and the reduction in the fleet of hunters of the RAF made it possible Italy to become a user of the ADV at the beginning of 1995. Italy borrowed 24 specimens of the RAF. They operate starting from Gioia de Colle and Trapani/Bergi.