Translated by BabelFish
THE ECLECTIC SUEDOIS
By cultivating its neutrality carefully, Sweden saved the horrors of the Second World war. In the movements which agitated the world has the end of this conflict, the Scandinavian kingdom decided that it was necessary for him to obtain a completely independent industry of armament, in order to guarantee its neutrality. That included the most complex systems, such as the planes of weapons has reaction. The responsibility to develop the latter êchut has Svenska Aeroplan AktieBolaget (Company Suédoise of Planes), that is to say SAAB, company which had book its first plane in 1940.
If one excludes the transformation of his model 21 into motorization has reaction, the first apparatus Saab daprès-war was Saab 29 Tunnan (barrel). This effective apparatus, under its outside lumps, was followed of Saab 32 Lansen (Lance), which yielded in its turn the place in Saab 35 Draken (Dragon). Although in theory developed only for I' Armée with I ' Air Royal Swedish, these planes were exported in quantities towards the neutral countries such as I' Austria and the other Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Finland).
As it was often the case for the preceding generations, Sweden launched out well dansI' study of its fourth generation of fighters to reaction before the majority of the country having however an industry much more powerful. The new apparatus was to be suited, just like its predecessor, as well with the role of interceptor Mach 2 as with that of fighter-bomber Mach 1, and this from summary and short tracks under the hard climate of the Swedish far North.
Of the 1961, work began on the new concept. Its led to Saab 37 Viggen (the Lightning) whose prototype flew for the premiere time in February 1967.
first Viggen of series, a version fighter-bomber AJ37, left chain in October 1970, to join Flygvapnet (Armed with I' Air Swedish) in 1971. While maintaining in service its Draken in the role of interceptors, Flygvapnet was concerned with develop new versions of Viggen. Three secondary alternatives of Viggen started production thus, when 32 fighter-bombers AJ37 had been delivered: the two-seat trainer SK37, suited to the combat, SF37, apparatus of recognition (easily identifiable A its point before truffée of will cameras) and the SF37, two-seater alternative of maritime recognition which is different from the SK37 only by systems of avionics especially adapted to the operations of patrol to the top of the sea.
the version interceptor JA37 JaktViggen (the fighting Lightning) was launched in 1972, but no financing was accord& before 1974, when a AJ37 modified with standard JA37 had accomplished its first flight, June 4. The first entirely new JA37 stole on December 15, 1975, but the series production got under way really only in October 1977; and 1980 will have to be waited until to see the first operational JA37, showing an enormous delay on the initial program. The manufacture of the premieres versions of Saab 37 was arrétés in 1980, but Saab-Scania produced the JA37 until the end of the Eighties.
THE VIGGEN IN DETAILS
If one puts aside the handle two-seaters SK37, all Viggen Pa rtagent the same single-seat cell single engine. Its aerofoil in very open delta and its control surfaces duck constitute features characteristic of the silhouette of Viggen. It was Pun of the first planes with reaction using this configuration of the elevators placed has front I'; what classifies it among the very innovative concepts, my is especially explains its characteristics of very short takeoff. These performances doiventbeaucoup also with the engine doubles flow Volvo Flygmotor RM8. Built in Sweden and develops starting from the civil engine Pratt & Whittney JT8D, the RM8 comprises a reheat jet nozzle of design suedoise, which ensures Viggen a push than sufficient to take off more very short, to entirely fly at Mach 1 at low altitude and Mach 2 to altitudes of interception.
All the versions of Viggen are propelled by the basic RM8A, except the JA37 which profits from the increased push of the RM8B, slightly larger. For the short landings, the pilot puts in ceuvre an imposing system thrust reverser goes up in back Pa rtie of the fuselage, and which allows Viggen of arréter less than 400 m after having touched wheels, that is to say less than half of the distance necessary for a traditional landing.
the Swedish pilots involve themselves réguliére-lies to use this reverser of thorough a little with the manner of the pilots of Naval Aviation when they land on an aircraft carrier while seeking has to hang the first of the bits of stop. This
formation takes all its importance when one notices the exiguïte Swedish territory such qu ' an attacker can easily make unusable touter the air bases; in this case, envisaged for a long time by the Staff of Flygvapnet, the planes of Swedish weapons would operate from simple sections of motorways (this explains why, in Sweden as in Switzerland, the rails of protection of certain sections of motorway are assembled on hinges to retract them).
The system of weapons of Viggen is architecture around the Doppler radar with impulses LM Ericsson UAP 1011, optimizes for the attack on the ground. Versions JA37 are equipped with radar UAP 1023, optimizes for the missions of air-to-air combat, with in addition of the functions of sweeping in fire control system over. The cockpit comprises a collimator high head and a numerical system of control of the flight Honeywell/Saab-Scania SA07, which allege considerably the workload of the pilot in conditions of combat.
Viggen was conceived around the pilot, has the image of the other planes of weapons of fourth generation, such as the F-15 Eagle, so as to answer submissively and instantaneously has any order of the pilot. The apparatus is deprived of permanent armament inteme, but it can carry a great diversity of weapons under its seven points of fixing, and in particular a gun of 30 mm Oerlikon KCA places in a ventral pod. In practice, all Viggen in flotilla are equipped permanently with this pod gun, that the pilots regard thus as
an internal armament. The AJ37 can carry a great diversity of air-to-ground weapons: traditional bombs, planing guided bombs, rockets, missiles. The JA37, quanta them are able to implement various types of air-to-air weapons. Of course, the seven points of carrying can also receive additional fuel tanks larguables, cans of active and/or passive countermeasures and pods of diurnal and/or night recognition.
the missiles British Sky Flash and American AIM-9 Sidewinder (designe Rb24 in (' Swedish arsenal) form part of the panoply of air-to-air weapons of Viggen. In its panoply of air-to-ground weapons appear, for the SK37 as for the AJ37, the Maverick missile, that Flygvapnet indicates Rb75.
THE VIGGEN IN SERVICE
For I' Swedish industry of armaments, exports do not play a part as vital as in the large countries of Western Europe, especially France. Nevertheless, Saab-Scania A proposes its Viggen with several European air forces. The greatest effort of promotion was made within the framework of the "contract of the European Century", when Belgium, Denmark, Holland and Norvége decided, in the middle of the Seventies, to replace their growing old fleet of F-104. The very strict régles which frame Swedish exports of armaments did not have, in theory, gèner the sale of Viggen has countries of I' O.T.A.N., of which two were in addition to form part of the Scandinavian nations, like Sweden it-méme. Finally, General Dynamics F-16 Falcon was selected like hunter of premiere line of the Scandinavian steps of the O.T.A.N..
A few times after, I' India considered Viggen, jointly with Mirage Fl and the SEPECAT Jaguar, to fill of the missions of fighter-bomber at long distance. But Saab had to withdraw its offer, because the American government refused to grant the licence of export of an engine derive of the JT8D, in spite of the fact that this engine etait primarily uses on civil aircrafts, including already in India. In addition, I' Austria also planned to acquire Viggen; but this country, traditionally customer of the Swedish industry of armaments, y renonça finally and decided to occur from a plane of last generation, definitely too expensive for the budget of a small neutral country.
In (' absence of any export during the premiere half of nnées 80, Saab-Scania had nothing any more but Flygvapnet like single customer. The Swedish Air Force counted at that time five escadrilles of combat and six escadrilles of recognition equipped with a mixture with 52 SF37 and SH37, to which only one flotilla of advanced drive was added, equipped of 15 SK37. Four escadrilles of interception opérationrielles aligned 70 JA37, while 76 other JA37 JaktViggen were awaited to supplement the equipment of the forces dinterception of Flygvapnet until A the paddle of the Nineties.