Translated by BabelFish
One of the aims set by an international programme of
co-operation as regards aeronautics is to combine in the most
effective way the talents and the resources available in the countries
concerned in order to produce a concerning apparatus technology more
the possible projection. Result of a policy of this type
followed by France and the United Kingdom, the SEPECAT Jaguar, whose
service entrance goes up in the middle of the Seventies, is an
excellent plane of tactical support and attack, very appreciated its
users. Eclipsed now by Panavia Tornado within the Royal Air
Force, it constitutes the backbone of the tactical air force (FATAC)
of the Air Force French and continuous to being produced by Indian
The success of a program of international co-operation is due partly to the chance and certain coincidences. In the case of the Jaguar, these factors had a fundamental importance. It is at the beginning of the Sixties that France and the United Kingdom started joint research on a plane of drive having of the secondary capacities of attack. Work advancing, these capacities held an increasingly considerable place in the concerns of the two partners. The specifications emitted by the staff of the Air Force carried the name of ECAT (school of combat and tactical support), whereas those established by the persons in charge for the Royal Air Force had been baptized Air Staff Target 362. Initially, France decided for Bréguet (later, Dassault Bréguet) Br121, and the United Kingdom for British Aircraft Corporation P45. In May 1965, however, London and Paris signed a cooperation agreement which envisaged the setting-up of a firm carrying the corporate name of European company of production of the plane of school of combat (SEPECAT), and France was charged to direct the operations of design.
After many discussions, the two partners fell from agreement on a certain number of modifications claimed by the Royal Air Force, so that the program evolved/moved of a simple engine driving advanced to a powerful and effective fighter, which was going to carry the denomination of Jaguar. The construction of a two-seater version, intended to allow the transformation of the pilots who were to be useful on this apparatus, nevertheless was programmed.
Cell and engines of the Jaguar
The principal version of the Jaguar used today is a tactical single-seater optimized for the support with the forces of surface, prohibition on the immediate backs of the battle field, the operations against the aerodromes, the recognition and certain missions of air defense. Whereas the attack aircraft were before derived from downgraded interceptors, the Jaguar was designed, upon the departure, like a machine able to operate at low altitude and high speed. For this reason, the aerodynamic characteristics of the aforesaid apparatus were defined with the aim of make an extremely stable gun platform of it and very large comfort at the time of the fast evolutions that the grounds.
Compact and of size rather not very important, the Franco-British plane is a monoplane with high wings of entirely metal construction. The fuselage, which consists of three subsets, comprises panels in around the cockpit, and robust and light element honeycombs in sandwich at the other places. The parts before and power station of the apparatus as well as the wells of train were built in France, while the back of the fuselage and the aerofoil are due to British aerospace industry. The tires which equip the twin wheels with the main landing gear Messier-Hispano-Bugatti are inflated with a pressure relatively low (about 5,90 kg/cm²), which makes it possible the Jaguar to operate starting from summarily arranged tracks. The plane is also equipped by brake chute placed in the tail cone, it catches well of nose gear remains closed, except when the caster of nose is in the course of lowering or of retraction, thus reducing the risk of remains ingestion. Showing an arrow of 40° to the quarter of the cord and an anhedral of 3°, the aerofoil is manufactured around a torsion box bilongeron, and the aluminium alloy coating is equipped with structural stiffeners. Realized of only one part, the wings of the Jaguar are fixed at the fuselage by six points of fastener; they comprise nozzles of leading edges which improve maneuverability, in particular in aerial combat, and of the shutters of trailing edges with double slit which confer good performances at the low speeds to him (the speed of landing is of 215 km/h). One of the essential characteristics of the apparatus in the field of aerodynamics is the absence of ailerons, side control being ensured by spoilers established on the external panels of aerofoil, just in front of the shutters. At the low speeds, the pilot to supplement the action of these spoilers by the differential steering of the horizontal gears monoblocs.
The propulsion of the Jaguar is ensured by two dual flow jet engines Rolls-Royce/Turboméca Adour, which, just like the airframe, result from a Franco-British joint program. The Royal Air Force and the Air Force took into account apparatuses equipped with the version Adour Mk102 of this engine, which provides a static push of 3315 kg, but in 1978, the British made the decision to equip their planes with Mk104 of 3645 kgp. After having received from Mk804, practically identical to Mk104, the machines of export profit now from Mk811 of 4205 kgp. The capacity by carburizing intern, who is of 4200 L divided in four nurses of fuselage and two of aerofoil, can be increased by the carrying of three releasable auxiliary reserves of a capacity of 1200 L each one, installed on the central pilot of the fuselage and the interior points of fastener of the wings.
The principal characteristic of the Jaguar in this field is the absence of radar. Although a version equipped with a radar of nose Thomson-CSF/ESD Sisal plant and anti-ship missiles Aérospatiale AM39 Exocet were studied, all the apparatuses in service must resort to other sensors for navigation and the attack, and they have this fact of capacities any time limited. The Jaguar of the Royal Air Force profit from a system of navigation and attack of good quality, Marconi NAVWASS (Navigation and Weapon-Aiming System), which projects information necessary to the pilot on a collimator high head Smiths. The co-ordinates relating to the roads to be followed and the had aims entered the memory of the calculator of edge Elliott MCS 920 before takeoff. Appearing during the flight on a ravelling chart placed at the center of the dashboard, they can be the subject of corrections.
In 1983, the Royal Air Force launched out in a progressive modernization of its Jaguar GR. Mk1 and T Mk2, which were put respectively at the standard Mk1A and Mk2A by adoption of a system of inertial navigation at the end of 1064. Lighter of 50 kg than its predecessor, this system approximately occupies a volume lower by a third and is to connect to the altimeter radio operator Smiths of the plane. The nose shelters the power station of Elliott navigation and various other equipment.
The avionics installed on board Jaguar of the Air Force includes/understands a gyroscopic platform SFIM 250-1, a radar Doppler Decca RDN 72 carried out by Dassault, a calculator of navigation Crouzet 90, a fire-control computer CSF 31 and one fire-control computers Dassault, adapted to the missiles Martel anti-radars which the plane can carry. The antennas of the detector of radars CFTH are established in the drift and careenages installed in the tail cone.
Missions and armaments
The first of the eight prototypes ordered by the Air Force and the Royal Air Force, a Jaguar E French of two-seater drive (E 01) accomplished its initial flight on September 8, 1968. Three of its eight machines were allocated to the British, while France tested the five others, among whom appeared the naval version Jaguar M, intended for the Naval Aviation. The models selected by the RAF were the Jaguar B (T Mk2) of two-seater drive and the Jaguar S (GR. Mk1) of single-seat attack, of which 35 and 165 specimens were respectively taken into account between 1973 and 1978. Two other planes of drive were delivered by the Empire Test Pilots' School, and one is useful within the framework of Institute of Aviation Medicine. The deliveries related to Operational Conversion first of all Links (OCU) 226, in charge of the drive and the transformation of the pilots, then Squadrons 6, 41 and 54, based in Great Britain, and Squadrons 2, 14, 17, 20 and 31, established in R.F.A. The four last of these formations passed since on Panavia Tornado and their Jaguar was placed under cocoon.
Squadrons 2 and 41 are more particularly affected with reconnaissance missions, during which they carry a nacelle of 500 kg on the control pedestal of fuselage. This nacelle contains a battery of five photographic cameras F95 and a vertical camera with infra-red sweeping, the offensive load of the apparatus being limited to two bombs in bunches Hunting BL755 and to two air-to-air missiles of self-defence AIM-9 Sidewinder. The Jaguar of the RAF can however carry in case of need a tactical nuclear weapon or traditional bombs of 450 kg, sometimes equipped with a brake chute in sight of their dropping at low altitude.
Between 1972 and 1981, France received 40 Jaguar E of drive two-seater and 160 Jaguar A (A for support) of attack, all built by the company Dassault Bréguet on its assembly lines of Toulouse. The internal armament of these apparatuses includes/understands two guns DEFA-553 of 30 mm, and the 80 last produced Jaguar A profit from a laser rangefinder Thomson-CSF TAV-38, assembled in before fuselage instead of camera OMERA 40, as well as equipment of active electronic countermeasures. The Jaguar of the Air Force are in charge of the support of the national forces of surface in Europe or on the theatres with overseas. Being useful in nine squadrons of hunting depending on the tactical air force, they can carry the nuclear weapon tactical YEAR 52 or of the conventional armaments.
Jaguar of export
The Jaguar was exported in four countries of the world, the firm British Aerospace having been in charge of final assembly of all the sold apparatuses, except for those provided to India. Being pronounced in favour of the Franco-British plane of attack in 1978, following a competition organized under the name of Deep Penetration Strike Aircraft, Bharatiya Vay Sena (the Indian force air) took into account, during the following year, 18 machines, including two of drive, rented with the Royal Air Force. The second phase of this important program began in 1981, with the delivery of the first of the 40 apparatuses (35 international Jaguar IS of attack and five Jaguar international IB of drive) manufactured on the assembly lines of Warton. As for the first of the 76 Jaguar assembled, starting from subsets coming from Great Britain, by the company Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd., it took the air in March 1982. The Indians allotted to the plane the nickname of Shamster, which indicates a bent sabre.
The Jaguar built in Warton within the framework of the second phase of this program have a avionics identical to that of the machines of the Royal Air Force. On the other hand, the apparatuses of the third phase are propelled by engines Adour Mk 811 and comprise a system of navigation inertial and attack baptized DARIN (Display, Attack, Ranging and Inertial Navigation). They is sophisticated equipment is composed of a collimator high head Smiths HUDWAS (Head-Up Display and Weapon-Aiming System), similar with that of BAe Sea Harrier, a power station of inertial navigation Sagem is a moving map display indicator electronic Ferranti COMED (Combined Map and Electronic Display) 2045. The Indians, who preserved equipment of detection, illumination and laser telemetry, seem to have equipped some with their apparatuses of a Agave radar placed in a nacelle and Exocet missiles, which would enable them to carry out missions of anti-ship fight. The offensive load of the Jaguar Indians includes/understands mainly bombs in bunches BL755, weapons anti-runway Durandal, F1 nacelles, bombs produced locally, missiles air air Matra R 550 Magic and a nacelle of recognition, assembled under the control pedestal of fuselage. When the program in progress is completed, the Indian air force will have five will squadrons equipped with these apparatuses.
On its side, the Sultanate of Oman received two batches of a score of international Jaguar OS of attack and four Jaguar OB of drive. Some of these planes are equipped with engines Mk 804, while the others were equipped with Mk 811 and can, in the event of need, to carry of Exocet. All are able however to be equipped with air-to-air missiles Ford Aerospace AIM-9P Sidewinder, and two of the driving engines comprise a detector of radars at the top of the drift as well as a pole of in-flight refueling instead of tube of Pitot. Oman also could acquire at the RAF, via the Indian air force, one T Mk 2 intended to replace a Jaguar OB destroyed at the time of an accident.
In South America, Ecuador took into account in 1977 10 single-seat attack aircraft international Jaguar ES and two two-seat trainers international Jaguar EB, which it equipped with air-to-air missiles Matra R 550 Magic and with various other armaments. More recently, in July 1983, Nigeria placed order of 13 international Jaguar NS of attack and five international Jaguar NB of drive, which were delivered to him between 1984 and 1985. This state also took an option on 18 other machines, whose propulsion must be ensured by of Adour Mk 811.
The orders concerning the Jaguar reached the sizeable figure of 573 specimens, but the possibilities of export sales of this apparatus, at the present time, strongly decreased, although the persons in charge for the Royal Air Force do not despair to manage to run out their surpluses.