Translated by BabelFish
Harrier of first generation Six years of experiment with the P1127/Kestrel series led to the first flight of Harrier of series, GR.Mk 1, December 28, 1967 and its use by the RAF in 1969. The GR.. Mk 1 was initially carried to the standards of GR.Mk it then of GR.Mk 3 with modernized engines. The converted two-seater apparatuses of drive were called T.Mk 2, T.Mk 2A and T.Mk 4 after the modification of their engines. Harrier of the first generation all were almost withdrawn from the service by the RAF, some specimens of the two-seater were preserved to carry out tests. T Mk 4N of Fleet Air Arms have éte modernized with the standard T Mk 8 to transform the pilots of Sea Harrier on this version. The Indian navy, as for it, uses T Mk 60.
the US Marine Body adopted Harrier and bought 102 Mk. 50 two-seater AV-8A and eight TAU-8A. From 1979, 47 AV-8A were transformed into AV-8C and the fleet remained in service until February 1987. The Spanish navy bought 11 Mk. 55 and two T.Mk 56 by the intermediary of the American government and used them until 1996, after which they were sold with the navy inhabitant of Thailand. These apparatuses are Harrier the operational last of the first generation still in service.
Studies aiming to improve Harrier carried out in Great Britain (' Harrier with large the ailes') and with the United States (' AV-16A' - semi-official name which implies that this plane is twice more powerful than the AV-8A), led to an agreement between British Aerospace and McDonnell Douglas concluded in 1982 to produce Harrier II, such as Harrier GR.. Mk 5 in Great Britain and the AV-8B in the USA.
Two YAV-8B tested the new supercritical carbon fibre wings; they accomplished their first flight on November 9, 1978. Four planes of preproduction were tested as from November 1981 and the first production aircraft were given to the Navy American in 1983. A total of 286 apparatuses was delivered to the American Bodies of the Navy; starting from No 167, the aircraft were equipped for the attacks with night. The exemplary 205ème was the first of improved alternatives AV-8B Harrier II, equipped More with the radar Hughes AN/APG-65. The customers with the export of versions AV-8B are the Italian and Spanish navy.
the AV-8B was built in Great Britain under designation Harrier GR.Mk 5 and the first squadron (No 1 Squ) was declared operational in November 1989. From No 42, the apparatuses were manufactured to the temporary standards GR.Mk 5A in order to facilitate their conversion with the complete configuration of attack of night, GR.Mk7. the second generation of the two-seaters is the TAV-8B, 26 were ordered by the Navy American and one by Spain. The RAF in commenda 13 in configuration T.Mk 10 in February 1990.
Harrier GR.Mk 1
Harrier GR.Mk 7 of the RAF is quite simply the equivalent of the AV-8B of attack of night, it uses. practically the same equipment and same systems of avionics. It has the same bulge above the nose to place same sensors FLIR of General Electric. On the other hand, it does not have magnetic and infra-red chaff launchers in the back fuselage. The redundant careenage for the miniature radar with infra-red sweeping misses and is replaced by the final hemispherical antennas under the nose for the system of electronic countermeasures Zeus de Marconi. This last will replace the AN/ALR-67 of the US Marine Body when it is finally approved. Harrier GR.Mk 7 also has a cockpit compatible with the glasses of vision of night, which makes it possible to rather use the Night-Owl glasses of Ferranti than Cat' S Eyes of General Electric used by the US Marine Body. A numerical chart color of General Electric replaces the old mobile projected chart. First GR.Mk 7 ordered were the 34 apparatuses ordered in 1988, which brought the total of Harrier II used by the RAF to 94 (more two prototypes/appareils of preproduction). In order to be used as prototypes in GR.Mk 7, the two apparatuses of preproduction were adapted to place antenna FLIR above the nose and the Zeus antenna below. They accomplished their first flight in their new configuration on November 20, 1989.
the additional capacities offered by GR.Mk 7 were such as the RAF decided to modify all its Harrier according to this configuration. In order to facilitate this process, the apparatuses No 42-60 were built in configuration GR.Mk 5A making it possible to install the systems of avionics of GR.Mk 7 (thanks to an empty bump to place antenna FLIR and careenages for the Zeus antenna) and were stored as of their delivery while waiting for their modification. The modification of these apparatuses (and damaged GR.Mk 5) started in December 1990, the majority of old GR.Mk 5A going to the squadrons No 1 and No 20.
first GR.Mk 7 of series was delivered in May 1990, and the deliveries in Strike Attack OEU (Operational Evaluation Links) in Boscombe Down started in August 1990. It used some GR.Mk 7 to develop and to polish the procedures, the tactics and the equipment of origin. From its nature, the work of the OEU was not the object much publicity but these were the efforts which allowed this new apparatus, overpowered problems, and obstructed by the absence of many important parts of equipment, to be able to enter in active service. The work of the unit with the glasses of vision of night and the FLIR gave many possibilities to Harrier. GR.Mk 7 of series were delivered to the squadron No 4 (to replace GR.Mk 3 of the first generation) as from September 1990, and started to supplant GR.Mk 5 with the squadron No 3 in November 1990.
From the apparatus No 77 (ZG506), all Harrier of the RAF were equipped with the apex 100 percent, which makes it possible to delay even more the escapes of rolling and to improve the performance in the turns. This apex is similar with those conceived for Harrier of the second large generation ' aile' of British Aerospace, and will be retrofity on the former apparatuses in order to replace the apex, smaller and which was only one makeshift.
the failure of the miniature system of recognition to infra-red sweeping conceived for Harrier GR.Mk 5 made that GR.Mk 7 did not have any capacity of recognition, although the installation of a system of sweeping of US Navy, placed in an external pod, is possible. The pod of recognition Vicon 18 Srs 403 of Vinten and the pod multi-sensor Vicon 57 were also evaluated. When the RAF had to replace the Jaguars used in Turkey to control the zone of air prohibition above Iraq (Operation Guard), Harrier GR.Mk 7 were selected. In order to give them a capacity of recognition, the electric installation of at least nine apparatuses was modified (what required 600 working hours per apparatus) to transport the old man pod of recognition of Harrier GR.Mk 3, which contained only optical cameras, including/understanding a whole of four F95 cameras with objectives 70 mm and a F135 camera with an objective 127 Misters the squadron No 4 again had to be involved for the reconnaissance missions (which had been stopped when GR.Mk 3 was abandoned). Eights of these apparatuses (all equipped with the apex 65 percent) flew away for Turkey on April 2, 1993. The aircraft of the No.IV squadron were equipped with the unit 100 percent. Once certain minor problems regulated, GR.Mk 7 will be an extremely general-purpose and effective apparatus. The double Royal gun Ordnance Factory ADEN of 25 mm to barrel and pneumatic room will have certainly less retreat and a rate of shooting initial much faster (important for short salvos) and its weight will be lower than single gun GAU-12A assembled on the American aircraft. The detecting system of arrival Plessey missile will activate the suitable countermeasures automatically and will come to be added to Zeus which includes/understands a receiver of arrival missile present on the original apparatus and a Northrop jammer which will scramble the radars with continuous wave and impulses. A specific pylon for Sidewinder (when its use is authorized) will give an adequate defensive capacity at the time of the transport of a complete offensive load. These pylons will be finally equipped with an electromagnetic chaff launcher integrated BOWL so that the apparatus does not have "to lose" a pylon when it carries a pod standard Phimat.
Certains apparatuses of the squadron No 1 is already equipped with the system of navigation and attack integrated FIN1075G with a sensor GPS (Total Positioning System) integrated. The first aircraft equipped with this manner (ZD437) flew with the new kit on November 19, 1992. The presence of the GPS can be detected by the addition of a small circular antenna on the dorsal edge of the apparatus. With the armament made up of bombs of 454 kg, of pods of rockets BL755 and SNEB 68 mm are added rockets CRV-7 and cluster bombs CBU-87, are used by the Jaguars of the RAF during the war of the Gulf.
the squadron No 1 accepted GR.Mk 7 at the end of 1992 and was the first unit of first line to seriously begin the drive with the attacks of night. The squadron of reserve No 20 (renamed No 233 OCU), located on the same basis, controls GR.Mk 7 now, whereas the squadrons No 3 and 4 entirely equipped were transferred to Laarbrüch with the command with the Force from Fast Reaction from NATO when the base of the RAF with Gütersloh, Germany, closed in 1993.