Translated by BabelFish
Become now operational within the forces armed with the
United States and Canada, is in the course of deployment in that of
Spain and of Australia, McDonnell-Douglas/Northrop F/A-18 Hornet is
undoubtedly the most important fighter which was developed during
these 10 last years. The realization of this apparatus to the
slim lines and the particular silhouette was long and sown obstacles,
so much so that its manufacturer, the Northrop subsidiary company,
wondered on several occasions if it could never produce it in great
series. Finally, the paying pugnacity of Northrop révèla, and
the support as well as the McDonnell-Douglas experiment contributed to
ensure the final success of the machine.
Rather than to describe in detail genesis of Hornet (prone which would deserve very long developments), we will be satisfied to specify that the history of this apparatus begins in the medium from the Sixties, time to which Northrop conceived a project carrying the denomination of P-530 Cobra. The American company could make profitable in this process all the experiment which it had acquired with the realization of the line of the F-5. Besides the new plane presented certain similarities with its predecessor, would be this only by the shape in plan of its aerofoil.
Produced at a rate of two specimens, the technological demonstrator Northrop YF-17 was opposed to General Dynamics YF-16 within the framework of the Air competition Fights Fighter (ACF) US Air Force. The failure was cooking. The official authorities indeed carried their final choice on F-16, which was ordered at a rate of 650 specimens. Some time later, the two apparatuses were again confronted in order to make it possible US Navy to be equipped with a new hunter. Experiment lack in the fields of the design and the development of embarked fighters, Northrop joined to McDonnell-Douglas in order to promoting the YF-17, which was finally of account selected on May 2, 1975 to constitute the base of a new machine. To stop its choice, the American navy had held account of certain criteria: the aircraft produced by Northrop was equipped with two engines -- what represented an important safety factor --, it had a versatility higher than that of its competitor from General Dynamics, and its performances with the landing were more interesting. Although founded on the YF-17, the apparatus proposed by the American firm was different from it sufficiently to carry another designation: that of F/A-18, which meant that it could carry out at the same time missions of hunting (F, for Fighter) and of attack (A, for Attack).
The process which allows the passage of YF-17 to the F/A-18 translated by an increase in the wing surface intended to reduce as far as possible the speed of approach for bridging and to increase the capacity by carburizing intern. The structure of the apparatus was reinforced in order to allow catapult-launchings and the installation of a stick of landing, while the mass of the external load passed to 8620 kg. A new landing gear was adopted, and a avionics authorizing the use of the plane by all times, of day like night, was installed. The aerofoil was modified in order to become folding; moreover, the machine accepted a pole of supply just as electric connections making it possible to equip it with missiles air air to average carried AIM-7 Sparrow, characterized by a system of guidance active semi radar.
The detailed study of the F/A-18 was launched on January 22, 1976. Having accomplished its initial flight on November 18, 1978, above Saint-Louis, Hornet undergoes a long program of evaluation. It was thus not before February 1981 that the first specimens of series entered in service US Navy, in the event within Squadron VFA-125 of Navy, based with NAS Lemoore (California). In same time, two two-seaters TF-18A of drive had ensured the essence of the program of evaluation.
The first unit with becoming operational on the apparatus was Fighter-Attack Squadron WMFA-314 of the US Marine Body Black Nights, based in El Toro (California). If the forecasts are carried out the conditions which the budgets do not allow, 12 will squadrons pertaining ax Marines will be transformed on Hornet before the end of this decade.
The USMC was the first service to use Hornet operationally, but US Navy awaited only little time to take into account planes of this type, Squadrons VFA-25 and VFA-113 beginning their conversion in 1983. The VFA-113 Stingers took delivery of its F/A-18 in the middle of August of the same year. As for the VFA-25, it started to perceive to them his only in November. These two units, integrated in the Carrier Air Wing 14 (CVW-14), were the first to undertake a campaign at sea with planes of such a type, when they were deployed in the Pacific aboard aircraft carrier USS Constellation (CV-64), in 1985.
For this time, Hornet has been also engaged in the Mediterranean with Navy Strike Fighter Squadrons VFA-131 and VFA-132 as well as Squadrons VMFA-314 and VMFA-323 of the US Marine Body, on board the USS Coral Sea (CV-43), during the winter 1985-1986. This countryside resulted in attacks against Libyan buildings of war, raids on the life of Benghazi and the shootings of missiles anti-radars HARM counters sites of missiles and stations of electromagnetic detection.
Apart from the US Marine Body and US Navy, McDonnell-Douglas/Northrop F/A-18 and become operational in the Canadian armed forces, where it is useful under designations of CF-188A with regard to the single-seat version and CF-188B for the two-seater alternative of drive. Canada must acquire 113 CF-188A and 25 CF-188B.
Intended to take the changing of planes such as Lockheed CF-104 Starfighter, the McDonnell-Douglas CF-101 Voodoo and Northrop CF-116 Freedom Fighter, the CF-188 will be used by the Canadian air forces for two principal missions: air defense and the attack. The delivery of the first two apparatuses of this type (of two-seaters CF-188B) intervened in October 1982, and the training of the pilots began little from time afterwards.
The two only other countries which decided to equip their air forces with Hornet are Australia and Spain. First placed order of 75 machines, including 57 F-18A and 18 TF-18A (except for three TF-18A, all these planes must be assembled by the national aircraft industry, i.e. by Government Aircraft Factory, of Avalon). The plans establish by Royal Australian Air Force envisage the constitution of three will squadrons of first line. The first planes of this type were delivered in 1985 by Operational Conversion Links 2.
As for the market concluded with Spain, they relate to 72 apparatuses, including 60 F-18A and 12 TF-18A. The Spanish pilot training started in the United States, and the deliveries began during the summer from 1986. Version single-seat with accepted denomination local of C15, and alternative two-seater, which is useful at the present time in a squadron of drive whose setting-up is about to be completed, that of CE15.
In the field of the operational capacities, Hornet is presented in the form of a machine multirôle being able to carry out with an equal facility of the missions as different as the interception and the attack on the ground. This adaptability holds above all to the multimode radar Hugues APG-65 which equips the plane. Realized starting from the experience gained with the APG-63, installed aboard the McDonnell-Douglas F-15 Eagle, this equipment has remarkable qualities, and its reliability exceeds all the hopes.
The APG-65 profits from a system of autotests, which enables him to supervise its own performances permanently, to diagnose possible breakdowns and to notify them to the pilot and to the personnel of maintenance. Its modular concept, authorizing the simple and fast replacement failing elements, makes it possible the apparatus to quickly find all its capacities.
The radar developped at the point by Hugues for the F/A-18 works in several modes and appears of a particularly flexible employment. In mode air air, it permanently provides to the pilot data concerning of possible objectives (in fast research at long distance, its antenna sweeps the sky in front of the plane, indicating the contacts which advance and giving information on the direction of the threat and the speed of approach).
Another important function of this radar consists of its capacity of simultaneous continuation and sweeping. Used less than 75 km of distance, this mode makes it possible to follow 10 contacts while presenting at the pilot information relating to eight of them on the multifunction screens placed in the cockpit. In same time, the radar indicates which objectives constitute the most immediate threat. In aerial combat, Hornet is however handicapped by the fact that the missiles with guidance radar which it carries, in the event of the AIM-7F Sparrow, can move towards their target only when this one is illuminated throughout all their course.
In addition to these various capacities air air, the APG-65 has a certain number of air-to-ground functions. The cartography constitutes one of them, the radar restoring the principal characteristics of the ground flown over, which facilitates of as much navigation at the time of a mission.
The radar is not the only major element of Hornet. The plane indeed carries a certain number of calculators which classify and analyze the data provided by various sensors (in fact, the F/A-18 profits from a storage capacity much more important than that available to the F-15). It can also equipped with two detachable nacelles which contain a system of sweeping to infra-reds directed towards before (FLIR, for Forward-Looking Infra-Red) and of the laser equipment.
Placed on the points of fastener any fuselage normally reserved for the Sparrow missiles, these nacelles allow the identification of the objectives and the control of the shooting. They can accomodate a designator and a laser rangefinder who increase in a truly spectacular way the capacities of attack, already not very common, of the apparatus.
Even without this equipment, McDonnell-Douglas/Northrop F/A-18 remains one of the most powerful combat machines which were ever brought into service during recent years. There is not any doubt that the apparatus will play an increasingly considerable part within US Navy and of the US Marine Body as in the air forces external in the United States which made some or which will acquire of it.